Valentina-Bianca uses tools as neuroimaging and behavior research to

 

Valentina-Bianca
Stroiu

Group 1720, D
Series, 1st year

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                              Faculty of
Marketing

Bucharest
University of Economic Studies

[email protected]

 

 

Abstract

Neuromarketing it
is a new branch of marketing that resulted from the study of consumer behavior and
neuroscience, meaning that this field gathers neuronal evidence to help
understanding what stimulates the consumers mind. Neuromarketing is a technological
progress that uses tools as neuroimaging and behavior research to a better
understanding of the market. Neuroimaging or brain imaging can offer insights on
the subconscious processes in order to reach the main object of marketing that
is finding the proper and satisfying good for a consumer. The porpouse of this
paper is to examine neuromarketing in terms of definition, use, techniques, and
ethics.

 

JEL Classification: M31

Key words: neuromarketing, neuroimaging, consumer
behavior, neuroscience, marketing

 

 

Introduction

Neuroscience
broadens the horizont of research in marketing as in pychology where
neuropsychology became a strong field of its science. ‘While neuropsychology
studies the relationship between the brain and human cognitive and
psychological functions, neuromarketing promotes the value of looking at
consumer behavior from a brain perspective’ (Morin, 2011, p. 132). The survey
of how advertising and other brand-related messages influence consumer brain
applying scientifically monitoring brainwave activity, eye-tracking and skin
response is the definition for this marketing area.

 

1. Ethical debate surrounding neuromarketing

As any other
science neuromarketing has its ethics questioned and it is being considered a
threat to people privacy, manipulative and deceitful. According to Murphy et
al. (2008, pp. 293-302) one of the most consequential ethic matter of
neuromarketing is consumer independence. Also the well-being of the consumer
after being under neuromarketing experiments conducted by researchers using
neuroimaging tools and processes lead to a series of concerns about health
risks.

2. Brain
imaging

The brain imaging represents the researching part of neuromarketing and
it uses medical machines such as eye-tracking, MEG, EGG, and fMRI. The most
popular brain-based method is fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging), it
is a scanning procedure through what the part of the brain that is responding
to certain stimuli is highlighted due to the molecules in our body that
transport oxygen throughout the brain, named hemoglobins (Lindström, 2008, p. 6).
Another commonly used technique in this field is electroencephalography (EEG) that
consist in tracking diverse cerebral variations by recording the brain response
at a series of electrodes set at a different magnitude, the main objective of
this procedure is to present a better look at the consumer cerebral activity in
some particular cognitive processes (Zurawicki, 2010, p. 44). This combination between neuroscience and
marketing offers, not only to the field of marketing but to the whole community
because everyone is connected to the market, a closer look to what might be the
future of research and its impact (Fugate, 2008, pp. 170-172).

 

3. Marketing research vs. Neuromarketing

Neuromarketing is
considered the future of marketing because of its accurate researching
techniques of obtaing information from the consumer ‘black box’ in order to
discover the stimuli and external factors that have an effect on the buyer, in
other words neuromarketing can detect data that that describe the buyer feeling
and experience about a certain good or service with concrete evidence in order
to achieve the main goal of marketing research: to make the perfect
correspondence between consumer and good, so both parts can reach to the maxim
level of profit (Ariely and Berns, 2010, p. 284). According to Hyman and Sierra
(2010, p. 10) reaching to a marketing resolution has to be done after getting
through a systematic and detached process of obtaining information is called
marketing research, this type of research approaches a more conservative and yet insecure testing on consumer, the
methods that are used are focus groups, that are slightly unprofessional for an
analyse of statistics, market
tests, that has an important issue mainly because the buyer is engaging in this
tests on his own and with his budget so this type of testing it is risky and
tricky, preference questionnaires and simulated choice methods (Ariely and
Berns, 2010, p. 285). In comparison to the unconventional techniques of
neuromarketing, that can reach to the ‘buying button’ of the consumer and can
be revealed only at a subconscious level, marketing research traditional ways
of analysing and attempts to reach the subconscious and to boost the searching
of the proper costumer are not very promising (Fugate, 2007, pp. 385-391).

 

4. Conclusion

In the final analysis, even though the costs that are very high this
still is the most innovative and precise marketing method of research and the
benefits from it are even higher. Keeping track of what is bought is a simple
task for companies but the real issue is to explain the consumer choice, fact
that neuromarketing can figure out using brain raw material and science.

 

 

 

Reference list

Ariely, D. and
Berns, G. S. (2010) Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in
business. Nature Reviews Neuroscience
e-journal 11(4): 284-292. Available through: Nature (database)
Accessed 20 December 2017.

Fugate, D. L. (2007)
Neuromarketing: a layman’s look at
neuroscience and its potential application to marketing practice. Journal of Consumer Marketing e-journal
24(7): 385-394. Available through: Emerald (database) Accessed 20
December 2017.

Fugate, D. L. (2008)
Marketing services more effectively
with neuromarketing research: a look into the future. Journal of Services Marketing e-journal
22(2): 170-173. Available through: Emerald (database) Accessed 20
December 2017.

Hyman, M. R. and
Sierra, J. J. (2010). Marketing Research
Kit for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing.

Lindström, M. (2008)
Buyology: Truth and Lies About Why We Buy.
New York: Doubleday.

Morin, C. (2011)
Neuromarketing: The New Science of Consumer Behavior. Society e-journal 48(2): 131-135. Available through: Springer
Link (data base) Accessed 20
Decemer 2017.

Murphy E., Illes J.,
Reiner P. (2008) Neuroethics of neuromarketing. Journal of Consumer
Behaviour e-journal 7(293):302.
Wiley
Accessed 20 December 2017.

Zurawicki, L. (2010)
Neuromarketing: Exploring the Brain of the
Consumer. New York: Springer.