This reflexive response is associated with a new conditioned

This theory derived from the research of Guthrie proposing that if the association between stimulus and response is established in time and/or space will likely to be correlated1.


This theory proposes that:

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?           Conditioning is established only when the subject actively reacts.


?           Because learning needs the conditioning of particular developments, guideline must present tasks in details.


?           Being exposed to numerous degree of fluctuations in stimulation is desirable so as to create generalized response.


?           The last response will be associated with the stimulus in the learning process; therefore, it should be proper.


Guthrie argued that, in contiguity hypothesis, reinforcements such as rewards or penalties have little influence on learning as they happen after the connection between stimulus and response is established. As sales promotions are considered as a means to reward their customers, contiguity theory will not be further deliberated2.

Classical Conditioning


Classical conditioning is also known as Pavlovian conditioning which was discovered accidentally during the 1890s by a Russian physiologist – Ivan Pavlov. He examined the salivation of his dog when it was being fed, and he realized that his dog would begin to salivate whenever he walked into the room, even when he was not bringing them food. Ivan Pavlov was the first type of learning of behaviorist tradition, and his theory had a profound impact on the understanding of human behavior3.


Classical conditioning is the learning process in which a natural stimulus that brought a specific reflexive response is associated with a new conditioned stimulus with a purpose that the new stimulus also triggers the same reflex4.                             

The model of the theory generally consists of stimulus and response. The unconditioned stimulus originally triggers a natural reflex called unconditioned response. The neutral stimulus is a new one that does not elicit a response. The new stimulus is constantly paired with the unconditioned stimulus until a strong association is established, and the new stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that ultimately brings about a conditioned response.