chosen research topic relates to the influence of mentoring on the performance
of African-American females. Research
shows that females are dispirit from owning their businesses because they fear
that they are not good (Collins et al., 2014).
As more women make efforts to be successful in their work environment, male
leaders discourage or instill fear in them that they are not competent enough
to manage an organization. The opportunities
that could lead to career improvement, some of these women are not consider to be
part of it (Norman, 2012). This paper
analyses articles and explains the key terms that appeared from the articles.
It is important that students use
databases that would enable them to gather the information they need to
complete their research project. While
there are many articles available in the Argosy University Library online, it
is important to differentiate articles that are empirical and non-empirical. By so doing, students would be able to find
articles that are more credible and have valuable information about their
research project. I
searched the Academic Search Complete database that is affiliated with Ebsco.
This database has different articles on African-American women business
owners. To obtain the desired articles,
I set the parameters for articles that are not more than five years old. I also selected only articles that were
full-text and peer-reviewed. Another
database that I searched was ProQuest. ProQuest
has different articles including a dissertation on mentoring and women business
owners. I chose the databases because
they have information that is related to my research topic.
Boolean logic was implemented in my article search by connecting words in this
manner: Mentoring and African-American
women, Mentoring and business owners, and African American business owners not Caucasian women. I also used
Boolean logic in this manner: Mentoring business owners (title) AND Jones and
Jackson (author) AND 2016 (year).
RQ 1. Is there a statistically significant
mentoring and the performance level of African-American female employees?
Ho: There is no statistically significant relationship between mentoring and the
performance level of
African-American female employees.
Ha: There is a statistically significant relationship between mentoring and the
performance level of
African-American female employees.
Laukhauf and Malone (2015) conducted a qualitative study
to examine whether mentoring improve the lives of women in a business
environment. The total number of
participants who were used in the study was twenty. The participants were women entrepreneur of
different businesses. The results
suggest that mentoring improve the lives of the participants who were involved
in this study. The results further show
that women consider mentoring to be a useful tool during the early stage of
their business. The participants noted that they receive mentoring from other
professionals, families, friends, and other acquaintances. Because women were
able to learn by examples, they were able to assimilate information that
enabled them to improve their work performance.
Through mentoring, women can gain a better understanding of networking
opportunities, leadership skills, and self-confidence.
Collins et al. (2014) conducted a qualitative study to
investigate how mentoring improves academic women’s’ careers. Eight
participants who work in academia were used for this study and the participants
belong to the Women’s Group Meeting Program in the university they work for.
The results suggest that women had some challenges balancing work and their
personal life due to their research responsibilities they have with their
employer. Nevertheless, women show
appreciation for working in a diverse work environment where most of them were
natives of countries in Europe. Because
women were able to find challenges during their mentoring session that
prevented them from moving forward, they were able to find solutions to the
problems. The results also show that women were able to gain a better sense of
themselves and what they could handle at work.
The peer group mentoring improves women work performance and open doors
of opportunity that led to career advancement within their organization. Peer grouping mentoring become an effective
tool in helping women with academic career progression.
Norman (2012) conducted a qualitative study to explore
effective mentoring strategies that could improve employees career development. The participants used in the study were six
female senior national coaches. The
result suggests that one of the strategies that were used to develop
participants’ careers was ensuring that they understand that coaching in the
national level also gives encouragement to women and those who were interested
in becoming coaches. The results also show
that women who were interested in becoming coaches felt they needed to be
provided with opportunities that would enable them to gain experiences and
practice at a higher level in their work environment. To advance and develop employees’ skills, management
must be opening to mentoring from young and older employees.
Blood et al. (2012) conducted a quantitative study to
investigate the impact of mentoring on women in academics. The participants who were used in the study
were one thousand one hundred and seventy-nine women, and they were from
Harvard Medical School. The results
suggest that most faculty women do not have mentors and those who had mentors
were not satisfied with the information they received from their mentoring
sessions. The results also show that mentors do not discuss with their mentors the
importance of setting career goals. The results further show that mentees need
mentoring who can educate them about publishing and other areas in their
professional lives. Leaders and managers
of organizations should help and enhance mentoring efforts by discussing how
mentoring can positively affect employees’ research focus, academic ranks, and
their job performance.
Dow (2014) conducted a qualitative study to examine the
effect of mentoring on women careers. The
total number of participants in the study was eight. The result suggests that women who serve as
mentors noted that they would like to learn a new strategy that would enable
them to be effective mentors to women. The
results also show that mentors are interested in learning socialization programs
and networking that would teach them new strategies that would enable them to
be effective as mentors. Managerial
leaders should carefully assess how well the present socialization programs give
not only technical training but also how feedback is given to newcomers. The results also show that generational
differences can have a negative influence on mentoring. The race for mentors and mentees were also
noted as a factor that can help develop eh mentoring relationship between two
Lim et al. (2015) studied the role of
mentoring with African-American accountants to contribute to the body of
knowledge on mentoring as a potential tool that can be used in the accounting
profession. The researchers tested
whether African-American women have few mentoring benefits than their male
counterparts. The researchers tested the
impact of the quantity of benefits mentors provided on job positions. The results from this study suggest that African-American
women are less likely to have beneficial mentors than their male counterparts.
The results also show that having a formal mentor and having a greater number
of beneficial mentors have a positive impact on women job positions.
Newkirk and Cooper (2013) noted that
effective leadership is important in all organizations, and the Baptist Church
is not exempted. Strong spiritualism can make a difference in the life of women
leaders and members. A growing number of
African-American women are showing interest in the Baptist Church Ministry, but
the preparation, training, and mentoring are often insufficient. Ten African-American women were interviewed
to capture their background, educations, supports and roles as Baptist minister
preacher, counselor, and leaders in the church. The result suggests that few
ministers were willing to serve as mentors.
Women ministers were found to be self-motivated and personally
inspired. The results of the study also include
role analysis of women ministers as teachers, preachers, counselors, and as
mentors themselves. The study also shows
that in some cases, women were not supporting other women in the Baptist
church. Hence, it is difficult to be a
woman minister, and it is complicated even more when the minister is an
Gardner, Barrett, and Pearson (2014)
explored the lived experiences of successful African-American student affairs
administrators at predominantly white institutions and factors that served as
enablers and barriers to their careers success.
The researchers found three constructs: adjustment issues, institutional
factors, and care dynamics. A total of
14 participants were used for the study.
The participants were African-American student affairs administrator who
were males and females. The result shows
the importance of a mentoring relationship, healthy self-image and motivation
and social network and family support. Adjustment
issues/barriers included the feeling of prejudice and feeling of separateness
and compensation /work conditions and resources. The institutional factor
barrier was discrimination.
Jones and Osborn-Lumpkin (2013) noted that
many Black female junior scholars have private and early career development
program designed to address socialization issues through individual and all
grouped mentoring. This descriptive
qualitative study investigates the importance and effectiveness of a research
boot camp-like experiences in the form of an early career professional
development program. The results suggest
that while traditional socialization activity fail to include knowledge about
writing and publishing as well as provision for development, a professional and
personal network of Black female faculty identity as crucial for success. Furthermore,
studied the experiences and reflections of six educators’ leadership mentoring
conditions. The participants in the
study were Black women who were selected by faculty based on academic
performance. The research enabled
educational leadership candidates to serve as the researcher and took part
actively in searching for better and different route to culturally lead and
teach effectively in inner city school taught and lead by white teachers and
principals. The educational leadership participants and the candidates engaged
in lively discourse about pedagogy, practice, and support that promoted
cultural responsibility. The data
include conservation, informal interview, and reflective analysis.
Copeland and Calhoun (2014) conducted a
study to investigate the mentoring experiences of women superintendents in
southeastern states. The participants
included in the study were thirty-nine women superintendents and eight females’
superintendents who were purposefully selected.
The findings of the study suggest that women had positive mentoring
experiences that included the importance of having a female mentor and setting
up a support system. The findings also
suggest that social-emotional based elements for effective mentoring were
related to challenging, support, and encouragement of other female educational
leaders through both formal and informal mentoring.
Oszua and Agbalajobi (2016) explored opportunities and
challenges of young academia in a male dominant university system. From an exploratory qualitative design, the
article shows empirical evidence through structured face to face interview with
purposeful selected thirty-six females in academia. The participants were recruited from the
Obafemi Awolowo University, which is public owned first-generation university
in Nigeria. A thematic data analysis
reveals familiar challenges as inadequate and non-availability of older female
role models for upcoming females in
academia. Other factors included fear of being label by other colleagues
when a female has a male as a role model, unfriendly gender policies, and work
environment that does not cater for women’s needs. Based on these findings, the researchers call
for formal mentoring relationship for young women in academia.
Poor and Brown (2013) conducted a quantitative study about
women mentoring program. The researchers were concern with the retention of
women in engineering, which lead to the implementation of many programs to
improve retention, including meeting program.
The college of engineering at Washington State University started a
novel women’s mentoring program, using professional engineers who graduated
from the university as mentors. The
results showed that participants in the mentioned program are kept at a higher
rate than states that do not take part. Seventy-four
percent of the participants stayed in engineer compared to 68% for all 54
women. In the past, an average of 51% of female students are still in
engineering at the end of their first year.
and Kinnersley (2011) conducted a quantitative study to examine the experiences
of administrators who have been mentored.
The participants who were used in the study were two hundred and
thirty-nine and, they were employees who work with Tennessee institution of
higher education. The Kinnersley
Mentoring survey was used to gather the data. The results suggest that women
prefer mentors who were also women. The
results also revealed that there was no significant difference in mentoring
relationship. The results also show that
mentees who had a mentor who were of the different race had satisfying
mentoring relationship, and mentors who were of higher rank had useful sessions
even when their mentors were of the same rank with them.
(2011) examined the effect of mentoring on female career development. The total number of participants who were
used in the study was sixty-seven and, they were faculty and administrative
employees of a university. The instrument
used to collect the data was developed by the researchers the results suggest
that mentoring encourages women to perform well within their organization. The results also show that mentoring enabled
women to create career goals that were attainable with a five-year period. The more mentoring women received the more
they became sure of themselves. This gave
an opportunity for purposeful dialogues and enabled mentees to make better
decisions and solve problems. Furthermore,
Ncube and Washburn (2010) studied how a caring focus mentoring team model can aid
women in advancing their careers. A
total of six participants were used for the study and the participants belonged
to a local Association of Women Business owners chapter. The results suggest that women collaborated
with each other and created network system where they strategize about how to improve
and advance their business.
Lefebvre and Redien-Collot (2013) conducted a mixed method study to assess the
impact of learning programs in mentoring.
The total number of participants used in the study was one hundred and
ten and they were from Paris, France. The
results suggest that mentors use persuasion, encouragement, and criticism as
mentoring strategies. The results further showed that encouragement, and
persuasion had a positive impact on mentees attitudes. When mentees were encouraging to try new
business endeavor or strategy, they felt they have the potential to improve
themselves. This motivation provided them with the strengths they needed to try
new things and develop their basic skills and improve their work
environment. When mentees use a
mentoring strategy that was not effective, they were informed by their mentors
to consider environment and situations that could motivate them to make such a
decision so that they would be less likely to make similar decisions in the
This paper explained the articles that were
used for this literature review. This
paper also discussed how the articles were found. One of the common themes across the article
is open-mindedness. St-Jean (2012) noted
that one of the most important
skills that is effective is having the ability to keep an open mind. Norman (2012) noted that we all come to the mentoring table with
our own thoughts, our own value system, and our own prejudices. Latham, Ford, and Tzabbar (2012) said that the purpose of mentoring is to
transform not only the mentored but also the mentor. Collins et al.
(2014) mentioned that for mentoring
to occur, everyone needs to open their minds to new ways of thinking. It is not always easy, and it will be an
ongoing process throughout the mentoring relationship.
Another theme that appeared from the articles is listening. Norman (2012) noted that
participants felt that their
mentors actively listened to them during mentoring sessions. Blood et al. (2012) pointed out that during the morning session, mentors
are focused on what the manatee is saying, and they reinforce what the mentee
is saying by offering nonverbal cues, such as eye contact and nodding their
head. Both mentors and mentees need to engage in active listening with one
another. Another theme that appeared
was honesty. Ryan,
Goldberg, and Evans (2010) mentioned that their mentors were honest with them and they were prepared to
hear honest answers (or to deliver honest answers). St-Jean (2012) noted that it is not always easy to be completely
honest, but it is important. Another theme
that emerged was deep reflection
and self-awareness. Collins
et al. (2014) explained that mentors
and mentees took time to reflect on what they were discussing. Norman (2012) noted that taking time to reflect, however, can help
people avoid automatic reactions and, instead, help each other grow.