The poppy plant is the source of opium, and it is made from the Papaver somniferum, moreless the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum, December 9, 2017). Opium can vary in color- it ranges from yellow to pink to blue and even dark brown. It has a very distinct smell or odor, and it is very bitter to the taste (What is Opium?, n.d.). Like stated before, opium is made from the opium poppy. Opioids act like opium, but they are man made. They relieve pain and they can put someone in an extreme relaxation state. Types of opiates include morphine, codeine, and heroin (Difference Between, n.d.). Opioids help with pain, especially in those who have cancer. Opioid therapy is one way doctors can manage a cancer patient’s pain- it can dramatically increase the patient’s quality of life, as it diminishes the feeling of pain. Opioid therapy eases their pain. An opioid most typically used is morphine (Optimizing opioid, December 2, 2006). Opium has tons of naturally occurring alkaloids. These include codeine, oripavine, and again morphine (Papaver somniferum, December 9, 2017). Opium has a ton of information on it, some topics include the history of opium, what opium actually is, the addiction and dependence aspect of it, and some more facts on it. Opium was made from scraping out the milky latex and leaving it to dry up. But now, with all the new technological advances, this can be done with the help of machines. Opium has been around for hundreds and hundreds of years, and this was a form of pain relieve and anesthesia (What is Opium?, n.d.). But, the earliest opium was used was in 3,400 B.C. The Sumerians, the people from Southwest Asia, called it the “joy plant.” The opium poppy was ultimately passed down to cultures in other parts of the world. Many people soon began to realize what power this poppy plant had, and the demand for it increased dramatically. This increase in demand led to other countries growing and making opium to prevent prices from going up. So essentially, people began growing the opium poppy in many parts of the world. When opium worked itself to Asia, to China, the Opium Wars started in the mid-1800s (Opium Poppy n.d.).A major drawback of using opiates is potentially getting addicted to them, or abusing them. The effects of using opiates include: confusion, weight loss, hallucinations, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, and many more (Effects on, n.d.). The opium poppy contains several alkaloids, including morphine. After someone uses heroin for a long time, symptoms of withdrawal kick in. Some symptoms include insomnia and depression. “Heroin binds to receptors in the brain and produces feelings of euphoria. Its structure mimics that of a natural neurotransmitter and taps into the brain’s communication system, interfering with the way nerve cells normally send, receive, and process information.” (How Heroin, n.d.). At least 300,000 Americans are using heroin. Since 1999, the number of prescription painkillers prescribed and sold has increased dramatically (Dreamland. S. Quinones). Physical dependence of opium is when the body relies on opiods to prevent withdrawal. This is easily managed with drugs, and is resolved with slowly tapering of the particular opioid or substance. As the tolerances increases, the body becomes more dependent upon the substance (O’Brien, December 3, 2017). For example, if someone has been drinking alcohol for a long time, their tolerance has increased and it would be difficult for them to completely stop drinking it. The body is used to having this substance, and if it wasn’t getting it anymore, the person would suffer symptoms of withdrawal. It is the same with opioids; if someone was using a large quantity of the substance for a long time, their tolerance would increase. Therefore, the body would need that substance in order to feel normal. When people use pain medication for use of long term pain, they will most likely become addicted to it. This being that if someone who has a chronic back ache, and they took medication to neutralize their pain, they would want to take more and more so their pain stops for more than just a short amount of time. If use of opium dramatically decreases, the body is going to suffer symptoms. The body is psychologically and physically needing the substance. Opium withdrawal symptoms include, nausea, cramping, aching bones, irritability, and there are many more (Opium Withdrawal, n.d.). People often confuse physical dependence with addiction, but addiction is described as the inability to manage drug use, and the urge to engage in drug abuse. “Physical dependence can occur without addiction; this is the most common experience of the most chronic pain patients who are able to develop the uncontrollable compulsion and loss of control” (O’Brien, December 3, 2017). The US National Library of Medicine has said that even in the 17th century, millions of people had been using opium and that they would not know and worry about what repercussions they were under for using opium and potentially getting addicted to it (Opium Addiction, n.d.).There are some interesting facts about opiates. One being that the more opiates are prescribed, the more deaths there are, and there are approximately 46 deaths from prescription drugs each day. Most opiates are legal, with the exception of heroin, because they are prescribed (5 Facts, December 3, 2015). Different systems in the body are affected by prolonged use of opiates, these include: the respiratory system, cardiovascular system, and the circulatory system (10 Facts, n.d.). Opiates are one of the only substances that will manage extreme pain- it is very effective in the sense that it relieves pain (Effects on, n.d.). Opiates are also known to be very effective to be sleep inducers. Heroin misuse is getting worse in the United States, studies has shown that three out of four heroin users start by misusing painkillers (5 Facts, December 3, 2015). Opiates are very accessible, as all opioids, except heroin, can be prescribed by doctors. As people abuse drugs, their behavior changes drastically, some behavioral differences may occur. These include, issues with the law, and conflicts in relationships (10 Facts, n.d.).