The theory of psychosocial development
As proposed by Erik Erikson, the theory of psychosocial development is a series of individual stages of growth. Ideally, in each stage, an individual goes through conflicting moments which are later believed to be centers for growth and development. For example, during such stages, the chances of personal growth are quite as well as that of failure. Roughly, there are eight stages of psychosocial development as highlighted below.
Psychosocial Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust
This occurs between birth and one year old. During this stage, infant’s personality is shaped and also there is a development of trust depending on a relationship built with child’s caregivers.
Psychosocial Stage 2: Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
It occurs between 2-3 years. During this stage, children development is based on their personal control. Children are taught on how to use a toilet as an element to enhance their ability to control body functions. At the end of this stage, children are even more confident.
Psychosocial Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt
It occurs between 3 to 5 years. Children at this stage develop independence and practice volition. Those who complete this stage develops a sense of purpose skills while the ones who fail to complete it feel a sense of guilt.
Psychosocial Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority
It occurs between 6-11 years, where the main challenge is to deal with social and academic work. Successful completion of this stage enables an individual to write, draw, solve problems and perform social activities.
Psychosocial Stage 5: Identity vs. Confusion
It occurs during adolescent stage. Once completely done, one has a feeling of independence and control.
Psychosocial Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Occurs for the people aged 19-40 years. At this stage, one should develop a proper intimate relationship.
Others stages for the people above 40 years include generativity vs. stagnation and integrity vs. despair.