Pope wealth tends to make people less generous. Their

Pope Francis once said, “When one lives attached to money, pride or power, it is impossible to be truly happy”. He is completely right. Wealth is something that everybody wants to obtain in life; however, according to studies undergone by Berkeley, wealth tends to make people less generous. Their studies show that wealthy people give 44% less of their earnings to charities. Their results actually imply that wealth can create unhappiness. Throughout the short story, “Winter Dreams”, the author, F. Scott Fitzgerald, proves this. He does this through the using the literary devices of tone and foils to prove his argument. Fitzgerald expresses how money is a source of unhappiness within an individual through the emphasis on social status because he wants the readers to recognize that money controls the lives of the wealthy.     Fitzgerald commonly uses tone throughout the story to emphasize his message that money is a source of unhappiness. This is expressed the winter before Dexter achieves his wealth. While describing Dexter’s feelings during the winter, Fitzgerald writes, “At these times the country gave him a feeling of profound melancholy— it offended him that the links should lie in enforced fallowness, haunted by rugged sparrows for the long season” (1). Fitzgerald uses a dreary tone throughout the passage because he wants to express Dexter’s emptiness in his life. He feels as if he is being consumed by an immense sadness as a result of his lack of monetary value. He believes that the way to achieve happiness is through wealth. Another instance of the author using tone to further explain his message is when Dexter is having dinner with Judy. Fitzgerald explains, “During dinner, Judy slipped into a moody depression which gave Dexter a feeling of uneasiness. Whatever petulance she uttered in her throaty voice worried him. Whatever she smiled at — at him, at a chicken liver, at nothing — it disturbed him that her smile could have no root in mirth, or even in amusement” (4). He uses an anxious tone to convey Judy’s discontentment. Her wealth has given her many materialistic things in her life, yet she is still unable to be happy.     Fitzgerald also uses foils to his advantage in order to emphasize his message in the story. He uses this method to differentiate between Judy Jones, the woman Dexter fell in love with at age fourteen, and Irene Scheerer, Dexter’s current fiancé. On one hand, while describing Judy, he illustrates, “There was a general ungodliness in the way her lips twisted, down in the corners when she smiled, and in… the almost passionate quality of her eyes. Vitality is born early in such women. It was utterly in evidence now, shining through her thin frame in a sort of glow” (1). His word choice shows that Dexter is infatuated with her physical appearance and her “shining” persona created by her wealth. On the other hand, he describes Irene as, “light-haired and sweet and honorable, and a little stout” (6). This description of Irene is a complete negation of Judy’s description. Rather than focusing on physical attributes, her description is vague and boring. This contrasting view is obtained from Dexter’s own feelings about the two women. Fitzgerald utilizes foils because he needs the readers to see that Dexter has settled for Irene in the event of realizing he will never have Judy. For instance, The story later talks about Dexter and his fiancé attending a club together. Fitzgerald informs us, “It gave him a sense of solidity to go with her — she was so sturdily popular, so intensely “great”” (6). The quotation marks around great lead the reader to recognize that Dexter does not think she is so great after all. Even though Irene is clearly the more logical option for him, he sees her as nowhere near as perfect as Judy Jones. Fitzgerald effectively uses foils to contrast Dexter’s love interests.    Fitzgerald proves that money manipulates the mind’s of the wealthy. None of the characters in the story are able to effectively be happy, even after obtaining all the wealth they can ever ask for. Wealth leads to increased expectations in life, such as Dexter viewing Judy as his “winter dream”; therefore, when those expectations are not met, dreams are crushed. The tone that Fitzgerald uses while describing Dexter and Judy express that their wealth has not brought them happiness in their life. Also, Fitzgerald’s use of foils to contrast Judy and Irene suggests that Dexter can not find happiness with Irene because she doesn’t have the wealth that Judy does; therefore, he is not as attracted towards her. Wealth can, and certainly does, bring a feeling of unhappiness into the lives of the wealthy.