Personality Personality factor for improving work involvement is conscientiousness

Personality tests used at a work place

   The following are the
personality tests used in organizations:

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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

                 Personality features do
estimate job involvement. Increased job involvement is linked with ‘abnormal’
amounts of neuroticism (Kim 2009, Shorbaji 2011), increased agreeableness (Kim
2009), social optimism (Salmela-Aro, Tolvanen and Nurmi 2011), and resilience,
effective dealing methods (Bakker 2008). Engagement has linked with A type
personality, independence, and hardworking (Hallberg 2007). Great self esteem
along with positive thoughts will result in job involvement (Mauno 2007,
SalmelaAro and Nurmi 2007). When workers have increased self efficacy (Cifre,
Salanova, and Rodriguez-Sanchez 2011), and individual principles which go hand
in hand of that of the company, there’s a higher probability of involvement
(Wildermuth and Pauken 2008). Personality factor for improving work involvement
is conscientiousness (Christian 2011, Kim 2009). Individual job based
objectives are linked with involvement (Hyvonen, Feldt, Salmela-Aro, Kinnunen,
and Makikangas 2009).

FIRO-B

     This test is used to understand how an
individual’s personal wants determines the behaviour of another person. The
test has three dimensions (inclusion, control and affection). Every item has
two statements, one of which is the conduct of the worker that is seen and the
other statement is the kind of response an individual wants from another. the
test could be used for team building., leadership growth, training programs
etc.

Sixteen
personality factors

       This is a very useful test done in
organizations to make promotions, at the time of hiring, for career development
etc. the test assesses sixteen personality variables of an individual.  The test also reveals those careers that
would suit an individual based on his personality. Hence this test is done as
pre employment tests to determine if the candidate is the right one for the
job.

          

Type
A – B personality

History

                The Type A – B personality
theory is a concept which was first presented in the 1950s to explain patterns
of actions that were once believed to be risks for heart problems (Friedman,
1996). Since its beginning in the1950s, the theory has been commonly made
popular. These types demonstrate that how an individual act in crucial and
dangerous circumstances (Ivancevich & Matteson, 1984).

         This
theory was given by Friedman and Roseman who were cardiologists. They noticed
the behaviour of patients who had cardiovascular disease. Patients who were
seated in the waiting room, while compared with other individuals weren’t able
to sit on their chairs calmly. It was noticed that the chairs had worn out.
This could be because they sat on the side of the seats. They termed this
behaviour as type A behaviour. From then on, they started conducting research
to investigate if individuals with this type of behaviour are prone to heart
related problems.

 A Type personality

                                        Keinan
and Tal (2004) concluded that type A behaviour is a managing technique that
happens due to the worry of losing control over things. According to this
study, Type A character has more tendency towards burnout than Type B character.
Previous researchers (Cooper, Kirkcaldy,Brownish 1994, Friedman 1967,Jamal 1990,
Rosenman and Chesney 1985) was of the opinion that Type A people are goal
focused, aggressive, inspired, dynamic, highly motivated, assured, quick in all
work of life, frustrated, complicated, and aim to meet deadlines. They are very
distrustful of the others because of negative view and are workaholic. Such
individuals are always in a hurry to complete things thus more susceptible to
stress and consequently burnout. They are extroverts so show their irritation
verbally and have low psychological intellect.

                            Type A are very evaluating
and may react strongly towards others. They want to be followed so that they
can have control over things. Type A personality encounters heart illnesses
(Friedman (1967), Schaubroeck, Ganster, and Kemmerer (1994) is also prone to
stress and burnout (Jamal (1999), Sharpley, Dua, Reynolds, and Acosta (1995),
Matthews (1977) and Matthews, (1988) than type B personality. Characteristics
of enmity and time obsessiveness of type A are associated with wellness
problems due to pressure. According to Pred, Spence, & Helmreich (1987)
biased behaviour of such character can’t generate expert efficacy and linked to
stress based illness simultaneously. In the same way, Bluer, 1990; Matthews,
1988; Robbins, et al., 1991 opines that particular type A behaviour or example
antagonism, exasperation, and touchiness have improved possibility to develop
stress-related medical concerns. It can be suggested that type A personality
can be more associated with expert inefficacy which is one of the burnout
dimension. These individuals are also workaholics and they multi task. They
also like to meet deadlines.

                The book that Friedman wrote on, Type
A behaviour- its analysis and therapy (1996) speaks of the three symptoms that
type A individuals have. They are free floating anger, which gets activated
when minimal incidents occur, next is time emergency and the last is a
aggressive drive and a mindset that is achievement driven. The initials stages
of these symptoms is said to be inert and so it is not visible.

                 The A personality types are vulnerable to
stress-related illnesses such as CHD, increased level of hypertension etc. they
can have their flight or fight reaction by little things the surrounding. So,
they already have their stress hormones in them hence leading them to a lot of
stress related illness. It was the western collaborative group study that
proved A type individuals was associated with heart problems.

Type
A Behaviour Pattern (TABP)

This pattern includes –

Competitiveness

       These individuals are highly
competitive. They look at their goals without feeling happy of their
achievement. Any task given to them they want to finish it as fast as they can,
preferably before others could finish it. Hence, they have high work involvement.

Time
Urgency

They always have a sense
of urgency. They are in an endless battle with time. They get irritated with
wasted time and bored time. They try to do many things at the same time.

Hostility

 These individuals get
angry fast. This they may or even may not show. Outward. They search for the
bad things in others. It is believed that it is this symptom that is closely
connected to cardio vascular disease.