P2 a building or a room. The passes are

P2

Locks prevents unauthorised access to a building or a room.
They are used to secure doors, containers or lockers. The main locks that
everyone uses a key system to open. Each lock needs a specific key for it to be
opened and only that one key can open that one lock.
To prevent unauthorized access to buildings, all possible ways of entries need
to be locked with these locks so that no one can just open the door and walk
in. Only employees and people that have the keys to the locks can enter the
locked room or building.

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Locks help to keep systems secure as it prevents unauthorized
access to be able to use or take systems and items in the rooms with valuable
data.

 

Visitor passes is a system used by businesses to give
visitors from outside the business temporary access to a building or a room.
The passes are in the form of a card hanging around the visitor’s head to let
the authority of the building know that they are visitors. Visitor passes give
visitors access to rooms and buildings but they may still be restricted to
access or use some systems or still not be able to access every room in the
building. Visitor passes need to be on display so that the employees know that
they have permission to access rooms etc.

This helps to secure systems as the employees and authorities
will know who is a visitor and who may be a say thief trying to steal
information and data as visitors will have a card around their neck showing
that they are allowed access.

 

Sign in/out systems are used to keep track of employees
coming in and out of the building. This is so that the employers know exactly
which employee is in the building and which one isn’t at any given time. In/out
systems can also be implemented with doors leading into rooms with valuable
information.

This will help keep systems secure as say for example if
someone steals from a room, the employers can check the logs to see who last
entered or last left the room to the figure out who stole the data.

 

Biometrics are a form of authentication. Biometrics security
systems will identify people by checking for certain face features and
characteristics.

Retinal Scanners scans people’s retinas which is in the human
eye. It beams an infra-red light at the person’s eye, the person’s retina at
the back of the eye will absorb and reflect a certain amount back at the
machine. The machine then identifies employees from the information it
received. Since no two retinas are the same, it will be hard for people who
don’t have their retinas in the data base to enter the protected area. This
keeps systems secure as only the employees retinas that are saved in the
database will be able to access the protected areas, this keeps unauthorized
access away from areas that have valuable information and data.

 

Biometrics are a form of authentication. Biometrics security
systems will identify people by checking for certain face features and
characteristics.

Fingerprint authentication is one of the biometrics security
measure, this uses the persons finger prints to allow access to room or a
building. Since every person in the world has a different fingerprint, only the
people who have scanned their fingerprint in the database to allow access are
able to enter the room or building.

This keeps systems secure as only people with the
fingerprints scanned into the data base are able to access the rooms and the
building that are protected with the fingerprint scan.

 

Biometrics are a form of authentication. Biometrics security
systems will identify people by checking for certain face features and
characteristics.

Voice recognition works by listening to the person’s voice
and it compares it with the voice that is stored in the database with all the
voices of the authorized people. If it sounds the same then it will allow
access to the person and unlock the door to the area.

The keeps systems secure as only people with the right voice
will be able to access the area protected by the voice recognition security
systems.

 

A security guard is a person employed to protect a building
against thief’s and intruders who are trying to damage or steal the data
inside.

Security guards prevent data from being stolen or damaged by
apprehending any intruder and protecting and looking after the data at all
times.

 

Cable shielding is used to protect cables from any
interference that may occur electrically and to stop wiretapping; third party
devices connected with the mainframe wires, from occurring. It is important
that the cables that are used for transferring valuable data and information as
this will then keep the information and data from being stolen or corrupted. If
the information and data cables are not kept secure they can be hacked to
monitor the business’s data and information being inputted and outputted.

Cable shielding keeps systems secure as they protect cables
that are transferring valuable data and information of the business by stopping
any electromagnetic interference to be able to corrupt the data passing through
it.

 

P3

Configuring a firewall into your system will protect it from
any unauthorized access from connecting to your network. It acts as a barrier
between a trusted network and an untrusted network. It controls who is allowed
to come in and out of a network. This keeps systems secure as it
blocks any unauthorized access from connecting to your network and them having
the intention of stealing your data, having a firewall will prevent this from
occurring.

 

Virus checking software scan your computers files and memory
to detect any viruses that may be inside your computer. When the software
detects a virus it then removes the software viruses from the computer so it
doesn’t cause any damage. An example of a virus checking software is McAfee.

This keeps systems secure as removing a virus from a computer
is vital to protect all the computers data and information as a virus is a code
or program written to alter the way a computer operates and potential corrupt
the computer.

 

A virtual private network allows a private network to be
spread across to a public network safely, and it enables users to send and
receive data across shared networks. Applications and software’s running on a
VPN may therefore be more functional. Majority of business use VPN to connect
remote data centres, meaning that employees can use VPN to access network
resources without being in the same local area network. This keeps
systems secure as it ensures the level of security to the connected systems are
good when the normal network cannot provide it. It can also improve performance
of a network and make receiving and sending data a quicker process.

 

An intrusion detection system is a security management system
for computers and networks. It looks for any suspicious patterns in a network
or a computer by gathering information from the user’s activities to the
integrity of files, and then analysing it to identify possible breaches which
includes from outside the organization and inside the organization.

This keeps a system secure as it will be able to pick up on
any breaches that may occur from inside the organisation or from outside the
organisation, and it can inform the user that there may be a breach which can
then mean the user has more time to fix this breach as if there was no intruder
detection system, the user will only know that they have been breached once the
breach happens and by that time a lot of damage may have been done.

 

Passwords are a code that you type in to protect your account
with. Only by typing in your password you will be able to enter your account.
It is crucial to pick strong passwords that are different for each account you
have.

This helps to secure your systems as only the people who know
the password will be able to access the data inside the accounts. Prevents
anyone who is unauthorised from entering the account and using the data in
malicious ways.

 

Levels of access to data is a procedure for computer systems
where the administrator of a network of computer where different employees have
limited access to certain applications on the computer. Low level users can
access only a limited set of information, whereas the higher level users can
access the more sensitive information on the computer.

This keeps systems secure as it prevents low level users from
accessing data that the administrator might not want them to be able to access.

 

Software updating is when softwares and applications go
through a procedure where they add and repair things to better the software/
application. Updates are usually done when a problem is found by the users or
the software developer and a fix is needed. Installing the update fixes the code
and prevents the problems from happening on your computer again.

This helps keeps systems secure as hackers can find flaws in
softwares which allow them to gain access of your computer and the data inside
it. Regularly updating the softwares and applications in your computer will
ensure that there are little to no flaws that can be exposed.

 

Audit logs are files that are saved with the history of a
user on a network. It can record what time a user logged on, which files they
opened and what they changed and even which keys they pressed. Audit logs allow
companies or schools to control what their employees or students are doing on
their computers. If someone has gone on a website or used a software that they
are not allowed to, the manager or teacher can find out with these audit
logs and investigate and block the websites that are not acceptable.

This helps keeps systems secure as it keeps users under a
network to not be able to go on websites that are not meant for work or school
as it has been blocked by the authorizer.

 

Diskless networks are what the name is. It is a network of
computers that store data on the internet instead of in the disks in the disk
drives.

This helps keeps system secure as if data was stored on disks
and the disks or computer were stolen, all the data would have been lost
whereas if diskless networks is used then the data is still in the internet
where it can be accessed.

 

The “Handshake” is the process of establishing a connection
of one computer with another computer. It verifies the connection, the speed,
or the authorization of the computer trying to connect to it. An example could
be when a telephone connects to another telephone, the sounds of crackling
heard after the dialling is the “handshake” and it is how we know the telephones
are safely connected.

This helps keeps systems secure as because since the both the
telephones have different capabilities to each other, they have to send
information to each other so that they can settle on the highest transmission
speed they can both use. This prevents any interruptions and echo interruption
in the call.

M2

Encryption is a great method for providing data security. It
is used on the internet to protect user’s information that is being sent
between a browser and a server, including payment information and other
personal information. Encryption is a computer language, and what it does is it
scrambles up data including plain text or binary code into something
unreadable. The encrypted data is then almost impossible for hackers to gain access
to as the text or code is not seen as the original form. Only the user that
encrypted the code will be able to decrypt the code with their decryption key.

 

The public key is what its name says, public meaning it is
available to use for everyone via a directory. On the other hand, the private
key can only be used by its owner. When data gets encrypted with network keys
because the key pair is mathematically related, whatever was encrypted on a
public key can only be decrypted by its corresponding private key.

For example, if I wanted to send data to my friend jack, and
I wanted to make sure that only my friend Jack was able to see that data, I
would encrypt my data with Jacks public key.

And because only jack has access to his private key, he will
be able to decrypt it with his key as it is correspondent with his public key
that I encrypted the data with, he will be able to decrypt it and gain access
to the data I sent him.

 

VPN stands for virtual private network. Having a VPN
installed in your network means that all the information that you send to
others across that network is held inside a private and encrypted tunnel as it
makes its way through the public internet. This means that you are not able to
access the information inside that tunnel until it has reached its destination
or the person with the VPN credentials logs on to the server.

VPN can be used in a work environment. A mobile user who
needs access to sensitive information from a higher authority work server can
be given the VPN credentials to log in to the server when away so that he can
access the files.

 

 

 

Call backs can be referred to a few things one being:

Call back is a system of codes used for protecting a computer
network where a user calls into their computer or a computer, the computer then
checks the person’s username and password then ends the call and calls back on
the number with the same username and password to verify the person trying to
access the computer. Call back is also a function in programming which is
passed as an argument to another function. The call back is later then called
when the appropriate conditions are met.

D1

An incremental back up one of many types of back up methods
where it only backs up or copies the files that have been changed or edited
since the last back up.

Advantages –

•      Fewer files
are backed up daily, allowing for quicker backups.

Disadvantages –

•      If a full
back up is occurring, meaning a full restore, the latest full back up and all
the incremental backups must be then restored together, which can take a long
amount of time.

 

A differential backup is another type of back up that backs
up and copies all the data that has been changed or edited since the last full
back up.

Advantages –

•      This type
of back up saves storage space because the process is faster than a full back
up and only backs up the data that has been changed.

Disadvantages –

•      Every time a
full back up is being done, the data changes in a differential backup become
progressively bigger meaning it will keep on taking more and more space leading
to the whole back up process being longer.

 

A whole system replacement would usually only happen in cases
of huge disasters like an earthquake or a fire burning down the building
meaning damage would have been done to your system and you weren’t able to use
it anymore. It’s when you have tried everything in your power to restore your
data but the data is lost or destroyed. This usually mean you have to start up
your systems all over again or if you have a backup system on another site you
can have that replace your current system temporarily.

Advantages –

•      All the
bugs and viruses are also destroyed with the data.

Disadvantages –

•      You have to
start your business all over again, this may take a very long time.

•      You will
lose customers and a lot of money will be used to the rebuilding process.

•      It will also
mean loss of service as your website will be down.

 

A whole system replacement would usually only happen in cases
of huge disasters like an earthquake or a fire burning down the building
meaning damage would have been done to your system and you weren’t able to use
it anymore. It’s when you have tried everything in your power to restore your
data but the data is lost or destroyed. This usually mean you have to start up
your systems all over again or if you have a backup system on another site you
can have that replace your current system temporarily.

Advantages –

•      All the
bugs and viruses are also destroyed with the data.

Disadvantages –

•      You have to
start your business all over again, this may take a very long time.

•      You will
lose customers and a lot of money will be used to the rebuilding process.

•      It will
also mean loss of service as your website will be down.

 

A whole system replacement would usually only happen in cases
of huge disasters like an earthquake or a fire burning down the building
meaning damage would have been done to your system and you weren’t able to use
it anymore. It’s when you have tried everything in your power to restore your
data but the data is lost or destroyed. This usually mean you have to start up
your systems all over again or if you have a backup system on another site you
can have that replace your current system temporarily.

Advantages –

•      All the
bugs and viruses are also destroyed with the data.

Disadvantages –

•      You have to
start your business all over again, this may take a very long time.

•      You will
lose customers and a lot of money will be used to the rebuilding process.

•      It will
also mean loss of service as your website will be down.

 

There are 7 tiers of recovery after a possible disaster and a
loss of a whole system. The tiers identify how bad your system is after the
disaster and how long it will take to fully recover your system.

Tier 0: No off-site data

This tier is the worst tier, as it is when the company has no
back up plan, no disaster recovery plan or a plan to recover their systems.
This leads to the time of recovery being unknown as it could take many months
to fully recover systems.

Tier 0 is typically the tier that you want to avoid being
categorized in as it means you are more likely to lose data and more likely to
take longer to recover.

Tier 1: Data back up without a hot site

This tier is where the data of the system is backed up and
transferred to an offsite facility. Where if data were to be sent back, the
data would still be there but it would come in a delay of a few days or more.

Tier 1 guarantees that the data of your systems is still out
there somewhere, but it comes in the price of time, meaning the data will be
accessible by the company in a delayed time.

Tier 2: Data back up with a hot site

Companies can use this system for tape backups, so when a
back of their data is needed, they make use of an alternate site called a hot
site, where the data can be restored.

This tier is the same as tier 1 but it just takes less time
to recover all the data if a whole system replacement were to occur.

There are 7 tiers of recovery after a possible disaster and a
loss of a whole system. The tiers identify how bad your system is after the
disaster and how long it will take to fully recover your system.

Tier 3: Electronic vaulting

This tier uses the method of tier 2, but also uses a VPN or
secure networks to make sure that the data being streamed back cannot be hacked
or accessed by any unauthorized access.

The data is constantly being streamed to a remote location
and under a secure network, meaning the backup data cannot be destroyed or
hacked.

Tier 4: Point in time copies

A point in time copy is where the data in the system is
copied as a snapshot. This means that all the data is exported or saved into
one complete file.

This is beneficial as it saves up a lot of space and takes
less time to recover and restore the data back onto the system.

Tier 5: Transaction integrity

The integrity of the data is verified from the production and
hot site locations. This is done to eliminate any worries of the data being
damaged or corrupted. This helps to keep the data secure and to make sure that
the data being sent back is the correct data.

There are 7 tiers of recovery after a possible disaster and a
loss of a whole system. The tiers identify how bad your system is after the
disaster and how long it will take to fully recover your system.

Tier 6: Zero or near zero data loss

This is one of the good categories to be in because it means
that your company has plans and solutions in place for when disasters occur and
having data being backed up regularly so that when you do restore data from a
backup it is up to date and the data is very accurate.

This means that your data will be recovered quicker with no
interruption or any doubt of corruption or hacking occurring.

Tier 7: Data back up without a hot site

This tier is the best tier, it is basically tier 6 but the
whole back up process is automated meaning that when a disaster occurs, another
system off site is there already transferring data back into the system in a
couple of minutes.

This is where virtually no data is lost and no harsh methods
of recovery is needed.

 

The 7 tiers can be helpful as it can tell you which tier of
recovery your company is in if a disaster occurs and the higher up on the tier
system you go, the less downtime and loss of data your systems have and a more
secure back up of your systems will be present.

Knowing that your company is on a tier 5 or above after a
disaster can be a great relief as your company will be up and running e.g.
websites, stores, building etc. will be up and running in no time as the backup
of your data will have been secure and back into your main systems in no time.

On the other hand, knowing that your company is on a tier 4
to tier 1 is a really sad feeling as you know that it will take a lot of time
and money to restart your systems and regain all the data for your systems to
fully restart.

If your company is on a tier 0 meaning that no data has been
back up or recovered or all of your data has been lost. This means that you
have to start your company all again from scratch with no data in your system
to aid you.

 

Disaster recovery policies are procedures and methods created
by a company to make sure that the employees and people working for that
company know what the plan is to recover the data and systems of the company.

Advantages –

•      An
advantage to this is that having a plan for recovery if a disaster occurs means
that you are prepared for when the disaster does occur, meaning you will know
exactly what to do when it occurs.

•      Another
advantage is the employees of your company will also be in happy mood as they
know there is a plan implemented for a recovery.

Disadvantages –

•      The plan or
policies that have been made may be inaccurate or wrongly planned.

•      The size of
the disaster may not be accounted for in the plan meaning that if the disaster
is very big and your systems have been physically damaged, there may not be
policy for that to be recovered properly.