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The Sound and Music Industry 
Image result for music studioAs one of the world’s most important and major industries, the music industry involves the distribution, production, and sale of music in a variation of forms including the promotion of live musical performance. In 2016 the music industry grew by slightly just under 6%; the current worth of the global recorded music industry is now $15.7 billion. Within the music industry there are four areas which make it the industry; Artist Management, Record Companies, and Music Publishing and Live Performances. Within this article I will be focusing on these four sections of the music industry and will be explaining what they are. 

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Artist Management
Image result for artist managerManagers govern all the commercial elements of the artist’s career and directing the artist all throughout their career making decisions to benefit the artist. Managers need to know how the music industry works, so that they can protect and guide their artist giving them a successful career.
The role of a manager that works for a small label can be varied; the manager of an unsigned musician  or if they are signed  (labels such as XL, Matador or 4AD) often wears multiple hats – promoter, agent, accountant or any other kind of professional the artist needs to perform and have a viable career.  
The role of a manager that works for an artist that’s with a large label (Warner music group or Sony music or EMI) functions in more of a managerial capacity and supervises the other people employed by the musician(s). These managers have oversight and ensure that essentials such as advertising and PR campaigns are running smoothly, that tours are being booked and that artist gets paid for the work they’ve done.
Marc Oswald is in the top 10 out of the best artist managers in the world. He has worked in concert and tour promotion, television, and video and film production, entertainment marketing artist management. Marc said that the job of an artist manager is to ‘articulate the vison of the artist through marketing them’. The manager’s job is to sort out touring, publishing, PR (Public Relations), record label and merchandising are all necessary components which take the artist’s career down a successful path. 
Merchandising and Sponsorship: Merchandising is the only manufacturing and business activity within the music industry that does not involve the music, but it is related with the artist’s brand. Reinforcing the brand is the purpose of the merchandise, whilst supporting the artist’s intentions and their musical career. Merchandise is essential because it contributes to a large extent of an artist’s total earnings. Music Sponsorship is an advertising approach which aims to increase earnings normally through live music events and obtain brand awareness. They’ll address a selected and wealthy target, allowing advertising and marketing corporations to gain loyalty and accept premium prices. Brand partnerships are areas of extra funding for record companies over the last few years. Partnerships can be sponsorship offers in which artists endorse products for a particular brand such as Nike, Supreme, Adidas or Reebok.
Artist’s rights: Have many rights with regards to their music. A number of those rights include: 
Adaptation rights – these form of rights are used when a person makes a remix/re-writes your music so that the melody or main riff is performed, with a variety of instruments or when a person alters your music by adding and removing different instruments/vocals or sections to it. Other people need your permission or licence to do such things actions. 
Ethical rights for musicians – moral rights grant the composer or artist the right to continually be credited for their work or maybe to distance themselves from a piece if they desire. 
Reproduction rights – these form of rights permit the artist to record their songs on a CD, for a movie, or to post their music on the internet.
Performance and communication rights – these rights are essential if a radio station desires to broadcast your music.
Tour Management: Artist managers commonly tour with their artists and oversee matters along with: ensuring the artist is satisfied, making sure all income of merchandise outside of the venue is legal and ensuring that they arrive and leave on time. It is essential that the artists themselves are on time because (in particular on their first excursion) they are every now and then now not acquainted the industry etiquette consisting of arriving and leaving on time and not making a mess of the backstage so that they need a person to watch over them. 
Jeff Dorenfeld is another example of an artist manager, who has worked with Ozzy Osbourne’s tours (Sharon Osbourne was Ozzy’s manager) and was the personal manager of the multiplatinum band Boston. Under his management, the band had no. 1 Billboard charting album and a $25 million grossing tour.  He said in an interview that ‘A manager is supposed to orchestrate the artist’s vision and guides the artist’s career…Trust is needed in the relationship between the artist and the manager’. The artist’s job is to perform and compose the music trusting that the manager can see the direction the artist is trying to go in, and clears the paths for the artist inside the business world. 
Royalties: Music licenses and royalties are not the same thing; royalties are the payments that go to artists whilst their work has been used in some capacity. Royalties can be paid for in numerous forms of licensing and utilisation. Usually royalties are paid as soon as the copyrighted work is broadcast or performed in any form. There are four versions of Music Royalties, which include:
Synchronization – royalties are paid to copyrighted music this is paired with any type of visible of media which includes movies, ads and online videos. 
Print Music – royalties are the simplest, least common form of payment that is paid to an artist. This kind of royalty deals with copyrighted music is transcribed to a score, like sheet music.
Mechanical – physical reproduction of the artist’s work are where royalties are paid.
Public performance – royalties are the most common shape of royalties that are distributed to musicians. 

Image result for record companyRecord Companies 
 A record company or record label is a trademark or brand related to the advertising and marketing of music recordings and music videos. There are two sorts of record companies: independent labels and major labels. Right here are some of the differences between them: 

Artists who sign to independent labels are allowed maintain the rights to their music. However, major labels will not allow their artists to maintain the rights or have control over their music. 
Major labels are normally owned with the aid of a parent company; for example the parent company for EMI Records is the Universal Music Group.  Compared to an independent label (Indie record labels) do not have corporate support. PWL are an example of an independent record label. 
Most artists who are in a major record label earn up to10-15% royalty of their music. Usually, an independent label offer their artist 40-75% royalty for their music. This is why independent labels can attract an artist more.

The Biggest major record labels in the world are: 

Universal Music Group  
Independent labels  
Sony Music Entertainment  
EMI  
Warner Music Group  

The Biggest independent record labels in the world are: 

Rough Trade
Creation
Factory
XL Recordings
Warp
Ninja Tune
Domino
4AD

Retail and distribution: Record labels direct to retail frequently; currently record labels are making much more sales at once because they’re creating online stores of their own, causing them not to have a 3rd party member doing it for them in terms of distribution. Record labels that have a relationship with iTunes normally operate by going directly to iTunes. Being one of the most effective and most used digital sales groups globally, iTunes allows people to search and discover new artists, new songs by their favourite artists and songs for the right occasion, therefore it’s a great idea that record labels work directly with iTunes. Almost all new music is available digitally in this decade, which makes it easier for people to add a song that they like to their playlist/library/download songs to their phone. Distributors nonetheless are still needed when it comes to dealing with physical copies of music (a CD or record disk). Record labels do not just specify in marketing for artists. 
Copyright and digital rights: Artists and record labels often dispute when it comes to copyright and digital rights as to who owns the music. Alex Mann who is from the Musicians Union said “Copyright is the right to prevent copying of intellectual property, so the copyright owner can protect their work and control how it’s used. The copyright owner can be the author of the work, or anyone else they’ve assigned the rights to.” (http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/introducing/entries/e6d9f4b9-e157-3fd6-8526-d3026f8ee3ca). Personally, if I were to be the owner of the copyright, I will enable the artist to have the authority to copy the music, if you rent or lend copies to the general public, perform the music live on TV. 
Definition of digital rights: digital rights are the relationship among copyrighted digital works (music, film and art) and user rights and permissions associated with electronic devices, computers and networks. Moreover, digital rights refers to the control and access of digital information.
Finding and signing new talent (A): A stands for artist & repertoire; it is the department within the record company or music publishing company that scouts for new artists and is responsible for the development of recording artists and songwriters. It additionally acts as a connection between record label and the artists. Therefore, A is a crucial area in a record company, as they help to develop the artist to make them sound professional, in terms of their own music. 

Music Publishing 
The job of a music publisher or the publishing company is to ensure that composers and songwriters get paid when their music gets used commercially.
Copyright management: Copyright management is an area in the industry which is very important. Both music publishers and record companies have to control and manage. The streaming and downloading of music through unlawful websites needs to stop; it is extraordinarily essential for artists to get all the money and royalties they deserve from their work. The illegal streaming and downloading of music costs the music industry endless quantities of money every year and the problem is getting worse as technology advances every day, and more streaming web sites are launched. An action that a record company or publishing corporation may take would be to appeal for a YouTube video of their artist’s music to be taken down if the publisher of the video has not credited the artist properly. Music piracy is another name for illegal copy right – The British Phonograph Industry (BPI) http://www.bpi.co.uk. Jeff Taylor from the BPI said: “2 hundred million pounds is lost in the music industry each year in the United Kingdom due to illegal downloads. The digital economy is critical for the UK”. Bing and Google have a no helping illegal business; because both search engines did have and still do have illegal music downloading websites many artists lose money. Jeff Taylor also said that ‘Artists should be rewarded for their work’ which I thoroughly agree with, because artists spend almost all of their time into developing, improving, recording and producing their  music alongside money being put towards these factors. In interviews, celebrities have said the music piracy ’causes the music industry to suffer’, ‘producers, songwriters and musicians are also affected’. Pre-released piracy is released whist music is made. Pirates can hack and put viruses on computers. Highly compressed versions (poor quality versions) can be made such as mp3 and wave files. Stephen Navin, the chief executive of the Music Publishing Association (MPAonline.org.uk) said “Music defines and enriches our lives. The business of music publishing is protecting music. Music publishers use the online world much more, so iTunes and Spotify”. 
 Many places in the United Kingdom such as bars, restaurants, studios, clubs and many others must own a special licence to play recorded music which they achieve from the Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL). The PPL licenses recorded music played in public and distributes the money as royalties to its participants. 
Finding and Choosing Songwriters: Commonly, publishers will listen to the work of an artist at an event such as a show or at performance. From their first encounter with the artist the publisher will keep watching out for them, observing their improvement and growths. In other circumstances, if an artist doesn’t have the opportunity to showcase their work they will go to publishers immediately with their songs or compositions. It’s vital for the artist to remain persistent as publishers don’t normally signal artists immediately. 

Promoting Material: Music publishers sell and promote new and upcoming music using various approaches such as: advertisement on TV, in cinema, on YouTube, posters and billboards, through media which includes Vevo music or MTV and lastly on social media sites such as Facebook and Snapchat. Music publishers may additionally pitch songs to movie and TV production organisations, record labels and marketing companies. They’ll occasionally assist writers to get them a record deal and funding for demos. Selling new and upcoming music is fundamental when creating a new artist’s launch a success. 
Dera Shelton is an ex Music Publisher who used to work for Sony/ATV. In an interview she was giving tips on how a music publisher can be successful. Here are some of the things she said:  Music publishers need to promote as soon as an event is booked. The amount of promoting depends on the level of the artists (some need more than others), especially considering if it’ll be the artists first live gig.  As a music publisher you will need a budget for everything, taking down note of it. Fans will purchase tickets so reach them as early as possible, telling how and when to purchase tickets. Use all forms of promotion possible to promote it; social media would be the best option. Giving people email blasts and messaging ticket agencies (bandsintown.com –this website gives fans notifications about performing bands). 
 
Caroline Elleray head of A&R universal music publishing said that “the internet helps A&R processes to see how many people are interested. Some songwriters perform their music and some only write music. Publisher make artists dreams come true.” 
Universal & Sony have publishing companies, and independence. 
PRS collects and pays royalties to performers when they perform live. Publishers will appoint MCPS to their agent to administer the mechanical right of the music.  
 
  

Live Performances 
Image result for live performances Tour management: The role of a tour manager is to organize the admin for a time table of appearances of an artist or musical group at a series of tour destinations. Generally, road managers handle tours that are small to medium-sized; tour managers are used on large-scale tours. A tour manager’s role is to ensure that life on the road runs easily and smoothly for everybody that’s there for the artist, for example getting the band to venues and inns promptly, coping with money coming in and going out, and dealing with promoters and venue managers. The abilities that a tour manager must have consist of communication, negotiation, finances control, crisis management, administration, time management and troubleshooting.
Promoting: In order to make a live performance successful, people are required to show up and assist the act as an audience. An audience gives the act money if they like it or they’d have to pay to see the act before the performance, and also the artist gains publicity. Dera Shelton, who is an artist promoter said “Promote a show as soon as it’s far booked”. Additionally, she says “use the tool of social media efficaciously to get fans involved. Constantly supply a variety of observe before advertising and marketing a display. Artists should send out a press release of an upcoming display. Use all promotion options available. Target the promotion of an upcoming gig to the artist’s goal demographic”. Artist promoters oversee PR and also help to promote an upcoming live performance. The world’s largest concert promoter is Live Nation. Live Nation operates or owns intimate large rock arenas, gig venue and music festival sites around the world, which includes Wembley Arena and the Brixton Academy in London. (http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/analysis-and-features/the-rise-of-concert-promoter-live-nation-804620.html) Live Nation and companies like it additionally promote gigs. Promoting a live performance is fundamental to it being a success and all of the tools available to promote a gig have to be used well in advance.
Health and Safety: Health and safety is prime within the planning of an event. The event manager is responsible for protecting the health, safety and welfare of all of the individuals operating or attending the event. Many different health and safety zones have to be covered, including: major incident making plans, crowd control, fire safety, sanitary facilities (toilets), these items are vital to consciousness on at some stage in planning.
Setting up: Putting in place a live performance is difficult and requires people with experience of and expertise in order for the whole thing to run smoothly and according to plot. Tom Maunger is a production director who is in charge of the setup of upcoming live performances said “every show starts with the production manager, who then hires his people to help put the show together. Setting up a live performance is key to ensuring the gig goes smoothly with no technical faults and should be done well in advance and not last minute so every piece of equipment can be checked to see if it is working.”

In conclusion, I believe that the four main areas of the music industry are vital, because their purpose is to benefit the artist career  and support their vision, bringing it to life.