LDR Our project involves tracking, through which there will

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LDR                                                                      
light
dependent resistor

MPP                                                                     
maximum power
point

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CDS                                                                      
cadmium sulfite

PV                                                                     
    photovoltaic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

Our project
involves a circuit which is based on an Arduino microcontroller that is
programmed to detect change in sunlight via the LDRs which actuates the servo
motor to position the solar panel. Through dual axis technology the solar panel
is positioned where it is able to receive maximum light. The servo motors are
able to maintain their torque at high speed and are also more efficient with
their efficiencies in the range of 80-90% and can also supply roughly twice
their rated torque for short periods. They are also quiet and do not vibrate or
suffer resonance issues and their performance and characteristics are analyzed
experimentally. 

Our project
involves tracking, through which there will be increased exposure of the panel
to the sun, increasing its power output. The trackers can either be dual or
single axis trackers but dual axis trackers are more efficient as they track
sunlight from both axes.

A single
tracking system was used as it is cheaper, less complex and still achieves the
required efficiency. This system is cost friendly and is easily implemented to
current solar panels. The increase in power is considerable and therefore, worth
the small increase in cost and low maintenance charge.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER
1

INFRORMATION

Renewable
energy is energy which is originated from natural sources such as sunlight,
tides, wind rain, wave etc. Solar Energy is the energy consequent from the sun
through the form of solar radiation. Solar energy is an inexhaustible source of
energy. Today solar energy is the major eco-friendly & pollution less
method of producing electricity. The power the earth retrieves from solar
radiation is approximately 1.8*1011MW, which is way larger than the current
consumption rate on the earth of all commercial energy sources. The main
objective of this project is to improve solar tracker. Solar Tracker is a
Device which follows the movement of the sun as it rotates from the east to the
west each day. Using solar trackers upturns the amount of solar energy which is
received by the solar energy collector and develops the energy output of the electricity
which is generated. The solar tracker can be used for more than a few
applications such as solar day-lighting system, solar cell. The commercial
persistence of solar tracker is rise solar panel output, maximum efficiency of
the panel, able to grab the energy throughout the day.

At the
present time, clean renewable energy sources attract a great attention as an
essential mean for solving the energy crisis around the globe. Solar energy is
frequently offered free of charge all over the world although it is not a
continuous energy source. One of the most promising renewable energy sources
characterized by a huge potential of conversion into electrical power is the
solar energy. The green energy, also called renewable energy, has gained much
attention now a day. Some renewable energy types are solar energy, hydro
potential energy, terrestrial heat, wind energy, biomass energy, sea waves,
temperature difference of sea, morning and evening tides, etc. Among these,
solar energy is one of the most useful resources that can be used. However, so
far the efficiency of generating electric energy from solar radiation is
relatively low.

The main
objective of our project is to increase the efficiency. The solar tracker can
be used for solar cells and solar day-lighting system. Nowadays, the highest
efficiency of solar panel is 19%. So, the efficiency can be enhancing by using
solar tracker.

 

 

 

 

1.1  technology of solar panel

 Solar
panels are defined as to convert light into electricity. They are called solar
after the sun because the sun is the most powerful source of the light
obtainable for use. They are sometimes called photovoltaic which means
“light electricity”. Solar cells or PV cells depend on the
photovoltaic effect to absorb the energy of the sun. Each solar cell provides a
comparatively small amount of power, a lot of solar cells spread over a large
area can provide enough power to be useful. To develop the most power, solar
panels have to be pointed directly next to the Sun. A solar panel is a
collection of solar cells. The development of solar cell technology begins with
1839 examination of French physicist Antoine-Cesar Becquerel and he observed
the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with a compact electrode in an
electrolyte solution. Subsequently he saw a voltage developed when light fell
upon the electrode.

According to Encyclopedia
Britannica the first honest for solar panel was built around 1883 by Charles
Frits. He used connections formed by coating selenium (a semiconductor) with an
extremely thin layer of gold. Crystalline silicon and gallium arsenide are
usual varieties of materials for solar panels. Gallium arsenide crystals are
grown especially for photovoltaic use, but silicon crystals are obtainable in
less expensive standard ingots, which are produced mostly for intake in the
microelectronics industry. Norway’s Renewable Energy Corporation has confirmed
that it will construct a solar developed plant in Singapore by 2010 – the
largest in the world. This plant will be able to produce products that can
create up to 1.5 GW of energy every year. That is enough to power several
million households at any one time. Last year the world as whole formed products
that could generate just 2 GW in total.

1.2
Microcontroller Based Automatic Solar Tracker

F. Huang et
al. had aimed a microcontroller based automatic sun tracker combined with a new
solar energy conversion unit in 1998. The automatic sun tracker was implemented
with a dc motor and a dc motor controller. The solar energy transformation unit
involved of an array of solar panels, a step-up chopper, a single-phase
inverter, an ac mains power source and a microcontroller based control unit.
High efficiency was achieved through the automatic sun tracker and the MPP
detector. In this system, the MPP finding and the power conversion was realized
by using the same hardware circuit. In the existed MPP detectors, the detection
of the MPP was achieved by using analog computing, comparing, and holding. In
compare to the existed ones, in the fresh system, the MPP was detected by
software which

was embedded
in a microcontroller.

 

 

1.2  Evolution
of Solar Tracker

since
the sun transfers across the sky through the day in order to receive the best
angle of exposure to sunlight for collection energy. A tracking mechanism is
frequently incorporated into the solar arrays to keep the array pointed in the
direction of the sun. a solar tracker is the device onto which solar panels are
fixed which tracks the motion of the sun across the sky ensuring that the
extreme amount of sunlight strikes the panels throughout the day. When relate
to the price of the PV solar panels, the cost of a solar tracker is
comparatively low. Most photovoltaic solar panels are fitted in a secure
location-for example on the inclined roof of a house, or on framework fixed to
the ground. Since the sun moves across the sky and yet the day,