people generally expect that narcissism has only negative effects on leadership
behaviors, there are some good sides of narcissism. According to Post (1986), for
some conditions, especially in crisis, narcissistic leaders can be more
effective and more desired by their followers than less narcissistic ones. Furthermore,
Maccoby (2000) identified these kind of leaders as “productive narcissist”
are some limitations of the study which can have adverse effects on the results.
First of all, most of the studies in the literature are correlational studies
that have little control and cannot infer cause-effect relationship. There are
just a few experiments on this topic but those experiments were conducted for
specific conditions like in military cadets. The limited number of experiments
in specific groups rather than experiments on organizational leadership in
general prevent researchers to generalize the results and find the underlying
reasons or moderators between narcissism and leadership.
other important limitation of the studies is that gender equality do not provided
in terms of number of women and men. Most of the studies in the literature are
conducted with men and most of the data are collected from men leaders. There
are just a few research which collect data from women. It can be problematic
because of the limited source to compare gender effects of gender trends in
leadership and narcissism. Moreover, it’s also problematic to generalize the
results without controlling whether they’re the same or not.
the great number of the studies were conducted in Western societies, because of
the deficiency of research in different cultures generalization can be debatable.
The perspective toward leadership or leadership behaviors and the level of
showing narcissism to others in the organization or attitudes towards
narcissism can be different in independent or collectivistic cultures and these
can have a potential effects on the results. Therefore, conducting these kind
of studies in various societies would be more beneficial to generalize the
results and see the differences or similarities between those cultures.
order to reduce the adverse effects of limitations, further studies can be
conducted. Experiments might be designed to measure the topic empirically,
therefore number of women and men can be controlled in the experiments. Moreover,
the situation of the organization can be considered. Because the situation of
the organization which is whether the organization is in crisis, in process of
change or stay stable can affect the leaders’ behaviors and attitudes toward
narcissism. Moreover, solid evidences like profit, successful change or advancements
can be examined while analyzing outcomes of leadership narcissism. Lastly, 360°
feedbacks can be collected from coworkers and subordinates to evaluate the