is a branch of science that focuses on life as the ‘bio’ means life while
‘logy’ is study. Basically, biology is about life study. Human are totally
dependent on green organisms human alone cannot convert the sun’s energy into
forms that are usable by, hence their existence are vital to the very existence
of animal life.
Protista divided into two informal classification Algae and Protozoa. Algae
have two major phyla. Chlorophyta (Green Algae) and Phaeophyta (Brown Algae).
For Protozoa have four major phyla. Rhizopoda (Amoeba sp), Apicomplexa (Plasmodium
sp), Ciliophora (Paramecium sp)
and Euglenophyta (Euglena sp).
research focus on Protista, hence the writing will discuss the importance of
Protista as food sources more focusing on a species Enteromorpha prolifera (Nori) or majorly known as seaweed.
Enteromorpha prolifera also known as in Chinese Tai-tiao
(Arasaki & Arasaki 1983).
In Hawaiian, Limu ‘Ele’ele, Hulu’ilio (Abbott 1984). Japanese:
Sujiao-nori (Tokida 1954) and Swedish: Spretig tarmalg (Tolstoy &
Usage of Enteromorpha
prolifera as food sources for both livestock and humans.
Enteromorpha prolifera (nori) appeared
in both American and Asian waters. It was used extensively in food, especially
in Asian. Since the usage of Nori in japan is much extensive compared to other
Asian country, it is cultured on nets or bamboo staked set out in shallow
marine bays. The qualification to harvest it is when the thin, crinkly,
gelatinous blades are around 2-3 inches diameter.
Before using the seaweed as livestock feed, the seaweeds need to be
rinsed to remove the salt from them before using them as livestock feed in the
Europe and elsewhere. This is because they have fail identifying the usage of
the seaweed and had no reason but to as they restricted the enterprises to one
aspect only. Such as, the production of the iodine, livestock feeding and etc.
Instead in Asia especially in Japan, they processed the seaweed into eatable,
which were used in many gourmet. Japan developed a technology produced acetic
acid through fermentation of the seaweeds. This is due to their method on
preparing the seaweed progress is so delicate they manage to maximized the
usage of the seaweed.
Enteromorpha prolifera as sources of renewable
Enteromorpha prolifera, one of the many species of
algae for green tide, was converted to bio-oil by hydrothermal liquefaction in
a batch reactor at temperatures of 220-320 ‘C (Dong Zhou et al. 2010)
After the incident of the yellow sea in China the large-scale green tides, consisting mainly of
Enteromorpha prolifera, have invaded the coastal zones of western Yellow
Sea occurred in May 2018, they have found way to make use of the Entermorpha prolifera instead of just
removing it away from the Yellow Sea (D Li,
L Chenthey,2010) and achieve a better use of the resources for both mankind and
marine. They have found that it could be source of renewable bio-fuel. Enteromorpha prolifera, one of the most
popular from many edible green seaweeds in Northeast Asian countries, was
evaluated after ethanol extraction and sub-fractionation using
solvent-partitioning and chromatography (M. Cho et al.)
In addition to the
composition of pyrolysis material, the heating rate also affects the activation
energy of biomass. (Haykiri-Acma et al.)
The results that have
been found might been helpful to find a possible strategy for use of by-products
of green tide as feedstock for bio-oil production, which should be beneficial
for environmental protection and renewable energy development
contains a higher content of protein, water soluble carbohydrate and fiber than
most plants, yet have low levels of materials that are resistant to thermal
decomposition such as cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose Seaweeds is a sources contains a
great diversity in dietary fiber, as it contains high proportion of soluble
dietary fiber which could lead to disadvantages to starch digestion consequence
may have modify glycemic response and it is beneficial in human health.
Seaweed is anti-tumor and potent antigen toxic promoting Japanese edible
seaweed, Enteromorpha prolifera or
known as Sujiao-nori in Japanese.
This Nori, previously identified using in vitro cell culture by (Y. Okai, K.
Higashi-Okai S. Nakamura, Y. Yano, S. Otani, Cancer Lett.)
Enteromorpha prolifera as supplement for hens
Based on few research on hens that took Enteromorpha prolifera as supplement the egg has increased and the stock
of the hens food also has decreased not to mention that the shell of the hen
and yolk also improved as in the healthy change of the color and solidity. The
egg of the hen with Enteromorpha prolifera also has slightly low rate of
cholesterol compared to the normal egg.
Enteromorpha prolifera contain vitamin.
Enteromorpha prolifera as one of the
algae contains a great amount of vitamin B12. As Vitamin
B12 is an essential vitamin for addressing adrenal fatigue, multiple metabolic functions
including enzyme production, DNA synthesis and hormonal balance and maintaining healthy nervous and
cardiovascular systems. Vitamin B12 majorly involved in nerve health because of
its role in nerve health and neurotransmitter signalling, vitamin B12 benefits
cognitive function and is used to lower the risk of neurodegenerative diseases,
including Alzheimer’s disease and
dementia (St. Luke’s Hospital, Bethlehem, PA, USA)