Introduction of this the resulting damage to the structure




The naturally
occurring ground movement, which eventually goes on creating disasters such as
failure of structure and natural phenomenon is known as the Earthquake. The
energy that is discharged from those seismic activities makes waves. These
waves cause ground movement, which in turn is transmitted to the structure via the
foundation. Depending on the intensity of these vibrations, cracks and
settlement is caused to the structure.  Force is induced in structure; because of this
the resulting damage to the structure increases with the ground motion. 

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engineers introduce ductility to the
building (pliable but not losing its
toughness, meaning a building could be deformed during an earthquake but would
not collapse upon the people inside it. Imagine an elastic band. Though able to
withstand great force, it will eventually break; in the context of the
building, the maximum point it can deform before breaking, called the Elastic
limit. Upon reaching the Elasticity limit, cracks form in the building). However,
elastic materials are much more expensive to buy which gives a significant
disadvantage to poorer areas. In addition, elasticity decreases damage by
increasing the strength, giving a disadvantage to the components of the
building with less strength.

isolation is a frequently adopted earthquake-resistant system. Isolation being
the separation of a building from its foundations, Basic principle of base
isolation is to differentiate the building from its foundation, so during the
seismic action, building is stays unaffected from the ground motion. In other
words, even though ground moves aggressively, the building will tend to move
ideally as a rigid body rather than collapsing. However, though strong, all the
force of the earthquake is transferred to the building, which