there is a bonus-malus system based on type-approval CO2 emissions.
Vehicles with CO2 emission between 0 and 20 g per
kilometer receive a bonus of 27% of their purchase price up to EUR 6,300. This category includes 100% electric vehicles (BEVs
and FCVs). Vehicles with CO2 emissions
between 21 and 60 g/km are eligible for
a bonus covering 20% of their purchase price up to EUR 4000. This category includes PHEVs. Vehicles with CO2 emissions
above 131 g/km are subject to increased taxes which can mount up to EUR 8,000
France has a
national implementation plan for HRSs based on a cluster model approach 39.
This approach is deployed in three
phases. In the first phase, infrastructure development is focused on local fleets in the early years. In that sense, HRSs
and FCVs are deployed based on the identification of local clients. This method
guarantees that a good HRS load factor is achievable from the beginning of the
In this method, Fleet vehicles with predictable driving and refueling patterns
which make regular visits to a HRS are defined in a cluster. Then one or multiple
HRSs are responsible for supporting a
Figure 1. HRS supporting vehicle clusters-
method considered in France’s HRS planning 39
In the second phase, clusters are linked together,
and in the third phase, FCV full-scale
commercialization is pursued.
amount of funding for the development of HRSs in France is from European
funding. A European funding is secured for three
HRSs in Rodez, Sarreguemines, and Paris under
the 35 MEUR H2 Mobility Europe project, with the balance met by private sector
companies within the Mobilité Hydrogène France coalition. Another
European funding of EUR 4 million is allocated
from the Connecting Europe Facility for the deployment of 15 stations in the
Normandy region 40.
In France, financial incentives can take the form of a
tax credit equivalent to 30% of a home charger or subsidies for the
installation of residential or workplace chargers 19.
French environmental and energy agency (ADEME)
covers 50% of costs for normal and fast charging points for BEVs and 30% of
costs for rapid charge points if the chargers are publicly available 41.
As of November
2016, there were 14 HRSs in France 42. Table
15 shows the number of charging points in France from
2012 to 2016.
The government of UK provides incentives for the purchase of
six categories of vehicles 44.
Category one vehicles are vehicles that have the characteristic of emitting
less than 50 g of CO2 per km of drive and no CO2 emissions
for travel of at least 112 km. The grant
considered for these type of vehicles covers 35% of purchase cost up to a
maximum of GBP1 4,500.
Category one car models include BEVs of: BMW i3,
BYD e6, Citroen CZero, Ford Focus Electric, Hyundai IONIQ Electric, Kia Soul
B-Class Electric Drive, Nissan e-NV200 (5-seater and 7-seater), Nissan LEAF,
Peugeot iON, Renault
Renault ZOE, Smart fortwo electric drive, Smart forfour electric drive, Tesla
Model S, Tesla Model X, Volkswagen e-up!, Volkswagen e-Golf and FCV model of Toyota Mirai 44.
Category two vehicles are vehicles
that have the characteristic of emitting less than 50 g of CO2 per
km of drive and also emit no CO2 emissions for travel of at least 16 km. The grant considered
for these type of vehicles covers 35% of purchase cost up to a maximum of GBP 2,500
Category two car models include PHEVs of: BMW
225xe, BMW 330e, BMW
530e, Hyundai IONIQ PHEV, Kia Niro PHEV, Kia Optima PHEV, Mercedes-Benz C350 e
(with 17 inch rear wheels), Mercedes-Benz E350 e SE, MINI Countryman PHEV,
Mitsubishi Outlander (except Commercial), Toyota Prius Plug-in, Vauxhall
Ampera, Volkswagen Golf GTE, Volkswagen Passat GTE, Volvo V60 D5 Twin Engine, Volvo
V60 D6 Twin Engine, Volvo XC90 T8 Twin Engine Momentum (2017 model year only),
and Audi A3 e-tron 44.
Category three vehicles are vehicles
that have the characteristic of emitting between 50 and 75 g of CO2
per km of drive and also emit no CO2 emissions for travel of at least 32 km. The grant considered
for these type of vehicles covers 35% of purchase cost up to a maximum of GBP 2,500. This category of vehicles includes
Mercedes-Benz E350 e AMG Line which is a PHEV 44.
Category 2 and three
cars with a retail price over GBP 60,000 are not
counted as eligible for an incentive grant 44.
Category four vehicles
includes motorcycles that have the
characteristic of emitting no CO2 emissions and can travel of at
least 50 km between charges. The grant considered for the motorcycles
covers 20% of the purchase price for these vehicles, up to a maximum of GBP 1,500.
This category of vehicles includes BMW C evolution, Energica Ego, Energica Eva,
Scutum Silence S02, Torrot Muvi, Vmoto 100, Vmoto 120, and Zero Motorcycles
Exchange rate for GBP in December 6th, 2017 is 1 GBP ~ 1.34 USD