Globalization Elizabeth is one of the few largest cities

Globalization
is considered to be an important term which has played a significant role in
changing the landscapes of business all around the world. Globalization has
helped in increasing and enhancing a smooth flow of not only human interaction
beyond the borders but has developed a smooth international flow of culture, money, and ideas between different countries (Pasha,
2013). The aspect of Globalization in the modern world has been significantly
important for various less developed and developing countries in the world such
as Asian and African countries, which has been largely impacted such as arise in economy and employment due to the
advent of globalization. In this paper, Port Elizabeth has been selected as the
location upon which the entire analysis would be done. The impact of
globalization would also be discussed in brief along with its positive and
negative impacts with an aim to understand how globalization in Port Elizabeth
has impacted the personal lives and work scenario of the capital city of the
country (Dattagupta, 2017).

Port
Elizabeth is one of the few largest cities located in the Eastern Province
region of South Africa. The city of Port Elizabeth is also called as “The
Friendly City” or “The Windy City”. For example, Algoa Bay one of the most
important and the busiest seaports of South Africa is situated in Port
Elizabeth. This city was founded in the year by British Settlers and currently, Port Elizabeth is registered under
the Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality (ShowMe, 2017). The current
population of Port Elizabeth is estimated to be around 5 million people who
consist of varieties of racial and cultural mixes such as from Black African,
White, Indian/Asian, Colored, and Others.

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The
aspect of globalization is South Africa basically began during the period of
1870 when diamonds were first discovered in various parts of the country. This
resulted in the beginning of the international trade of diamonds between
different countries. However, the actual value of globalization was enjoyed
after the period of Apartheid, when each and every people of the country were
granted with equal rights and freedom in the country (ECONOMY, 2012). The
current economic situation of South Africa clearly portrays that the each and
every city including Port Elizabeth has been significantly impacted by the wave
of globalization. The aspect of globalization has assisted in developing the economy
of South Africa from being one of the underdeveloped
countries in the world to become world leaders in mining, automation, textile
industry, art and culture, sports and healthcare. Port Elizabeth is one of the regional cities of South Africa
as compared to Johannesburg, Cape Town, Pretoria and Durban has still been able
to fully utilize all the major elements of globalization in their city’s
development. It has been noticed that globalization has helped Port Elizabeth
to be recognized as one of the leading tourist destinations in South Africa (Oecd,
2017). For example, The Athenaeum, the biggest art center situated in Port
Elizabeth is visited by a large number of
local and foreign tourists throughout the year. The status of sports in the
city of Port Elizabeth has been significantly impacted as globalization has
allowed the city to introduce new sports for their people such as Football,
Rugby, Cricket, and Water Sports (Theathenaeum,
2017). For example, Southern Kings and Warriors are the two-local rugby and
cricket teams that represent the city of Port Elizabeth on national and
international levels of competition. The advent of globalization has played a
major role in improving the economic conditions of the municipalities of Port
Elizabeth through the manufacturing and sales of automotive products to other
states and cities of South Africa.

The
aspect of globalization has certainly benefited the city of Port Elizabeth in
various ways which would be discussed below:

Generation
of Employment Opportunities: With the advent of globalization, it has been
noticed the creation of jobs in the city has massively increased. This is
largely due to the fact that the globalization has allowed a large number of multinational companies such as
Ford Motors, General Motors, McDonald’s, Bridgestone,
Coca-Cola, Wal-Mart and Apple stores etc.
(Nelsonmandelabay, 2017). These multinational companies have expanded their
business in the city of Port Elizabeth and have created a large number of employment opportunities for
people in the city. Due to globalization, the average household income of
people of Port Elizabeth is approximately around R153, 801 to R307, 600(Africa,
2017).

The inflow of Foreign Investment: The positive
impact of globalization on the city of Port Elizabeth has significantly
benefited the Nelson Mandela Bay municipality as it has helped to attract more
investors and companies to invest their money towards the development of the
city. This is largely due to the appropriate policy and clear structure of
Nelson Mandela Municipality which has earned them to win the confidence of foreign
business organizations around the world. For example, H&M one of the top
Swedish retailershas been aiming at investing in the city of Port Elizabeth by
opening their outlets by 2018 (Brown, 2017).

Development
in Infrastructure: The aspect of globalization has certainly resulted in the
development of infrastructure in the city of Port Elizabeth. The Nelson Mandela
Bay metropolitan municipality has collaborated with Royal Haskoning DHV with the
view to enhance the public transport services of the city (Moodley, 2012). The
Nelson Mandela Bay municipality in order to mitigate the current transport crisis
in Port Elizabeth has launched a new project of Integrated Public Transport
System (IPTS) which would fasten the distribution network in the city by
increasing the number of passenger buses, minibusses
and taxis etc. Furthermore, it has also been observed that the aspect of
globalization in Port Elizabeth has encouraged Nelson Mandela Bay municipality
to invest around R100m in the development of the town structure of the entire
city. This globalization project undertaken in Port Elizabeth would focus on
developing and improving the roads, drainage system and sidewalks of the entire
city (Sain, 2016).

Enhancement
in Cultural Diversity: The aspect of globalization has certainly proved to be
positive for the city of Port Elizabeth in terms of cultural integration and
diversity. Globalization in Port Elizabeth has allowed the Nelson Mandela Bay
municipality to focus on improving the
cultural heritage of the city which was destroyed during the Apartheid period.The
major cultural developments identified in the city of Port Elizabeth is by
renovating the Red Location Museum which allows tourists and local people to
acquire complete information about the Port Elizabeth’s history towards freedom
from Apartheid. Furthermore, globalization has also positively impacted the
city of Port Elizabeth by introducing western culture among the people through
the introduction of Television and Internet which has allowed local citizens to
Port Elizabeth to connect with the traditions and cultures of the rest of the
world (Nelson Mandela Bay Tourism, 2017).

With
the advent of globalization, Port Elizabeth has also been subject to issues and
challenges which are discussed below:

Cultural
Conflict: Port Elizabeth has a long history involving people from different
multitude of cultural groups. However, globalization has facilitated
technology, transport channels and communication. Such developments have
integrated humans from different economic and cultural backgrounds. Port Elizabeth
has low cultural understanding especially of the Western Culture (ShowMe,
2017). For example, the major cultural conflict that has been prevalent in Port
Elizabeth due to globalization is the difference in the principle. The culture
of Port Elizabeth suggests protecting the mankind by collaborating with race,
religion and ethnicity which opposes the primary principle of the Western
societies that focuses on individual rights (Akello, 2013). Since culture is
being integrated in Port Elizabeth at a faster rate, so there exists cultural
conflict among the residents.

High
Competition: Globalization has increased the level of competition as there is a
struggle between the palatial centers (Developed World) and poor locations of
Africa such as Port Elizabeth. For example, Sholoza Shoes which is a
manufacturing company operating in Port Elizabeth. The company has been
experiencing growth in the sandal ranges however they soon started facing drop
in sales. Based on a comprehensive analysis, it was revealed that Sholoza Shoes
was facing global competition from a Mozambican company as they were selling
high quality shoes at low price (Aswegen et al., 2014). The intensity of global
competition has strengthened over years making it problematic for the industries
in Port Elizabeth to survive.

Informal
sector: The population of Port Elizabeth has been increasing due to immigration
as a result of globalization. The lack of jobs and housing opportunities in
Port Elizabeth has resulted in the formation of informal shack settlements
(Environment, 2017).

Damaging
industries: The globalization has attracted numerous investment and
developmental activities in Port Elizabeth. However, development activities
have simultaneously affected some of the industries in Port Elizabeth
significantly. For example, the Coega Port and Industrial Development Zone and
harbor development has negatively affected the Addo National Park, beaches,
islands, estuaries and whales. The developmental activities have also
negatively impacted the fishing industry at Algoa Bay by causing heavy air
pollution by heavy industries at Coega. The pollution has also posed a health
concern in Port Elizabeth as high amounts of Sulphur dioxide has been a
respirator irritant and broncho-constrictor (Environment, 2017).

Cruise
traffic growth: With the emergence of worldwide popularity and cross-border
integration for trade and commerce, the number of cruise liners at the
Elizabeth Port has been increasing which has resulted in a high cruise traffic
causing disruption and delay in trade and commerce. The rising cruise traffic
has negatively affected the ease of doing business in Port Elizabeth as the
liners are taking high time to reach the port and facilitate further trading
activities (Wilson, 2016). 

Economic
Globalization: The aspect of globalization,
especially in Port Elizabeth, has significantly assisted in improving
the financial conditions of the city. The development of harbor in the city of
Port Elizabeth has become a major economic boost for the city. The introduction
of newer shipping technology such as Containerization has benefited in
renovating the old harbor of Coega to a new one which in-turn has significantly
improved the export business of the country (Meyer, 2013). Furthermore, economic
globalization has also occurred in Port Elizabeth with the increase in the
tourism in the city. For example, Addo National Park is a popular tourist
destination in Port Elizabeth which is also the only park that is free from
malaria in South Africa.

Cultural
Globalization: The aspect of Cultural Globalization in the city of Port Elizabeth
has been an important element in improving the lives of people. Cultural
globalization in Port Elizabeth in the form of American movies, music, global
events and television has assisted in making people aware of the western and
eastern cultures of the world. Cultural globalization has also resulted in the
establishment of shopping malls, movie theatres, international hotels, restaurant,
bar and food chains all over the city (Vickery, 2016). For example, KFC and
Marriot Hotels are the perfect examples of cultural globalization which has
allowed foreign business chains to operate whir business in Port Elizabeth.

It can be concluded
by saying that the globalization has certainly played a significant role in
improving the lives of people all around the world as it has potential to make
the world a better place to live in and eliminate the problems. Similarly, in
the case of Port Elizabeth, it can be said that the aspect of globalization has
certainly played a vital role in improving the status of the city from being
the regional city to top manufacturers of
automobile products in entire South Africa. In this paper, brief analysis of the city of Port Elizabeth
has been done by discussing its current
status of globalization. The positive and negative impacts of globalization on
the city of Port Elizabeth such as such as generation of employment, cultural conflict have also been
discussed in brief. Finally, identification of various ways of globalization
occurred within the city of Port Elizabeth has also been elaborated