Dystocia important factor that result in to considerable economic

Dystocia in farm animals is the one
of the important factor that result in to considerable economic losses due to death
of dam or fetuses.  Fetal maldisposition,
as in this case, is one of the major cause of dystocia both in sheep (Thomas,
1990) and goats (Purohit et al., 2004). Amen and Ali (2010) reported 8.3%
prevalence of dystocia due to fetal malposition and 3.0% as a result of  fetal monstrosities while in another study,
Ali (2011), reported the prevalence of 21.1% dystocia due to fetal
maldisposition, 15% due to fetal 
oversize and 4.4% due to monsterosities.

In present clinical case, dystocia
was due to the upward deviation of head with the abnormality of vertebral
column (lateral curving of vertebral column; Scoliosis). Reports of vertebral
column abnormalities in ewe are meagre. In the embryonic period, somites which
form from paraxial  mesoderm, have a important
role in  vertebral  column 
formation. Each  somite  differentiates  into 
two  different cell groups of  dermomyotome and sclerotome. Sclerotomes
develop to vertebrae and the dermomyotome cells form muscles  and 
overlying  dermal  tissues (Kale et al., 2015).  Therefore,  any  abnormal
sclerotome  differentiation  affects 
the  formation  of  the
vertebral column and results in spinal anomalies (Semba and Ki, 2013). A case of congenital lumbar vertebrae agenesis in a lamb
was reported by Abbasi et al. (2017). Scoliosis and hydrocephalus have been
reported in association with congenital toxoplasmosis in ewe by Woods and
Anderson (1992). While there is no direct relation of Toxoplasmosis and
skeletal abnormality but infection with T. gondii may lead to reduced fetal
motility in uterus which lead to abnormal skeletal development, resulting in
subsequent skeletal deformities such as scoliosis or kyphosis (Woods and
Anderson, 1992).  In sheep, the uterine
infection with Akabane virus (Parsonson et al., 1977) and BDV (Barlow and Patterson, 1982)  may also cause
skeletal abnormalities. Ingestion of  plants
Conium maculata or Lupinus sp. also may be the causes of skeletal deformities
but in the present case it may not be the reason as these plants are not native
of India. Spinal cord anomaly associated with infection by another protozoan,
N. caninum, has also been reported (Dubey et al., 1990). The actual
cause of scoliosis in present case could not be predicted.

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In
present case the procedure of correction of dystocia include obstetrical
mutation along with forced traction with the help of eye hook. Dystocia due to
fetal maldispositions is usually corrected manually in sheep (25.2 %) and only
a small number (1.1%) require caesarean section (Sobiraj, 1994). In this case
the dam was saved but the fetus was dead and putrefying with sloughing of skin
tissues and hairs. Delay in treatment due to late reporting of the
case lead to putrefaction of dead fetus and uterine infection to dam as also discussed
by Christos et al. (2012). This case report
described the successful management of dystocia due to fetal maldisposition and
spinal anomaly in an ewe using obstetrical manuover combined with medical
approach without surgical intervention.