Bones of the mammalian skeleton
The skull includes 29 bones and 8
cranial bones that make up the skull these protect the brain from harm and
damage. 14 bones to protect the mouth and nose. 6 bones that help with hearing
and 1 bone that supports the tongue.
spinal column made up of about 26 bones also known as vertebrae. Split up into
5 sections the cervical, thoracic, lumber, sacral and caudal.
rib cage. This protect vital organs like the heart and lungs.
and collar bone. Allows movement in arms.
pelvis is made up from 3 bones and can be used to identify the gender.
Joints and muscles in the body of an animal
The muscular system provides support, posture and
provide heat. There are 3 types of muscles smooth which are a part of blood
vessels, ducts, digestive and reproductive systems. Cardiac is the muscle that
makes up the heart. Skeletal muscles are the muscles that move the skeleton.
There are many different
joints such as the fixed joint where bones are bound together meaning they have
little movement. Another joint is the ball and socket joint this joint allows
movement in all directions for example the shoulder. The ellipsoidal joint
allows movement in nearly all directions with minimum rotation the wrist is an
example of this joint. The hinge joint this joint bends or straightens for
example finger joints and the knee. Semi movable joint this joint joins the pelvis.
The plane joint used in the foot and wrist. The saddle joint which the body
only has one of in the base of the thumb. The pivot joint is used in the top
part of the neck and allows it to turn side to side.
The endocrine system and nervous system
system is made up from many glands that produce chemicals and hormones these
regulate the activity of organs and cells. The hormones also help with growth.
endocrine system is made up of many glands including hypothalamus, pituitary,
thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, reproductive organs and the pineal body.
nervous system is made up from the spinal cord and the brain. The works by the
brain sending messages through the spinal cord this controls movement and
organs. Neurons are also a part of the nervous system with the brain containing
about 100 million neurons. Neurons are made up like a normal cell containing a
nucleus and something else called axons.