As levels and results in the requirement of less

As a result of the Green Revolution unintentionally contributing to low mineral concentration in modern wheat species, citizens abiding by government sponsored nutrition guidelines–that advocate for receiving dietary minerals through cereals–are not receiving adequate amounts of zinc, iron, magnesium, and copper (Fan, 2008). These specific minerals believed to be abundant in modern wheat all serve as integral cofactors in the human body. Cofactors are inorganic compounds that assist enzymes in catalyzing chemical reactions. A deficiency in magnesium, specifically, can directly contribute to the manifestation of type 2 diabetes–a chronic disease in which insulin resistance causes hyperglycemia (extremely high blood sugar). Magnesium is a cofactor that aids in carbohydrate metabolism and glucose transport across the cell membrane; this effectively lowers blood sugar levels and results in the requirement of less insulin from the pancreas (Chetan, Sialy, and Bansal, 2002). However, without the presence of insulin, magnesium cannot be absorbed into the cell, and without magnesium, beta cells in the pancreas cannot secrete sufficient insulin. The insulin that is secreted does not function properly; magnesium deficiency results in defective tyrosine-kinase insulin receptor sites on cell membranes that cannot signal cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream (Barabagallo and Dominguez, 2015). Consequently, magnesium deficiency decreases insulin transport, reception and secretion, causing insulin resistance the in body: otherwise known as the cause of type 2 diabetes (Huerta et al., 2005). “Complex Carbohydrates”The misconception that wheat provides essential nutrients to the human diet is rooted in the misunderstanding of the commonly used terms “Complex Carbohydrates” and “Simple Sugars” (Table 1). Specifically, the idea that all “complex carbohydrates” are all beneficial, acting in a similar manner to fiber, and “simple sugars” result in detrimental health effects (Davis, 2015). The misused term “complex carbohydrates” simply refers to any polysaccharide–a carbohydrate made of numerous sugar monomers (monosaccharides) and oligosaccharides (3-10 monosaccharides)–while “simple sugars” refers to the individual monosaccharides and disaccharides (2 monosaccharides).  Because dietary fibers found in wheat are “complex carbohydrates” it is assumed that all complex carbohydrates are beneficial. In truth, the impact of these nutrients on the human body is not determined by the degree of polymerization, but the digestibility of the starch; influenced by granule structure (Juntunen et. al, 2002; Park, Wilson, and Seabourn, 2008; Cummings, and Englyst, 1992).The dietary fibers in wheat consist of oligosaccharides and polysaccharides that are nondigestible, and therefore cannot be absorbed into the small intestine– resulting in fermentation in the large intestine (Cummings, Englyst, 1995). The consequence of this resistance to digestion is considered to be significant–the reduction of cholesterol, regulation of glycaemic response after meals, etc.–and thought to be related to reduced risk of cancer, heart disease, and obesity (Grausgruber et. al, 2004). However, long term hybridization of diploid species of wheat T. monococcum into the common hexaploid modern wheat species T. aestivum, has radically augmented the content of polysaccharides found in wheat that’s granule structure is not resistant to digestion–and therefore results in absorption by the small intestine. The impact of easily digestible starch polysaccharides–abundant in wheat–is detrimental to the human body (Davis, 2015; Cummings, Englyst, 1995; Bednar et al., 2001).