“Ageing fertility rate decrease, because there is a great

“Ageing
is a privilege and a societal achievement, while also a challenge presenting
imminent impact on all aspects of 21st century society.”(1) is one of the
messages suggested from WHO (World Health Organization) on the theme of the
elderly people, a theme that has a crucial impact on our society. The Ageing
population is a problem that affects all regions and all countries with
different levels of development. Its progression is faster in the developing
countries, even among those with a high number of young people. The decrease in
fertility, the increase in life expectancy for all age groups and the reduction
in mortality rates are among the factors that, more than others, push our
population towards a gradual ageing of the population. Furthermore, there may
be an increase in population even if the birth rate and fertility rate
decrease, because there is a great rate of people born at different ages who
are fruitful. Well-being leads to an increase in average life, but the fertility
rate decreases especially in developed countries.
According to the National Statistics the population of the UK was 65.6 million
in 2016. From the statistics taken is clear that the population is getting
older with 18% aged 65 and over and 2.4% aged 85 and over. In 2016 there were
285 people aged 65 and over for every 1,000-people aged 16 to 64 years which is
the traditional working age.(2)
According to the UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund) in 2017 the number of
the population in UK is 66.2 million and the percentage of population aged
above 65 is 18.8%, this means that there has been an increment of the
population.(3)
These statistics show that there are less young people than few years ago,
because less children were born in the last few years. This is because the idea
of family has changed over time, now people tend to get married less often as
they prefer to live together, or they just get married in an older age. Birth
rate decreased also because same sex couple increased from the past as they are
accepted more from the community and became legally recognized in many
countries. Instead the elderly is increasing which can be considered a triumph
for development, because people today live longer for many reasons: such as
healthier life style, better nutrition, hygiene, progress in the field of medicine,
development of new technology live in better house and have a better healthcare
to treat themselves than many years ago.
According to the Office of the National Statistics in 2016 women have a
mortality rate on an average of 82.9 years and men 79.2. From the graph 2a and 2b
is evident that the life expectancy of male and female has increased from 1981.
(4)The demographic ageing has inevitable repercussions on
the labor market, public spending, social services and therefore on the
economic trend and the social, health and cultural evolution of our country. 
Although the risk of disease increases with age, health problems are not an
inevitable consequence of ageing. In fact, if for many of these diseases there
is no effective preventive measures known, for others they are already been
discovered. Among these, there is the adoption of a healthy lifestyle that
includes regular physical activity, a healthy diet avoiding smoking. In
addition, prevention measures also include clinical investigations for early
diagnosis, such as screening for breast, cervix and colorectal cancer, diabetes
and related complications and depression. Even though the medical development had
a positive impact on the society there are still so many diseases where the
cause has not been discovered that mainly effect elderly people such as Alzheimer.
Another problem
related to the ageing population is the pension age. The age to retire is bound
to increase more and more due to “life expectancy”. The sudden rise
of the retirement age may cause negative effects on youth employment, a gradual
adjustment will hardly have substantial effects. Increasing the retirement age
does nothing more than redistribute existing work, which depends on the
aggregate demand expected of businesses. So, if you increase the retirement
age, other things being equal, an elderly person will remain at work and a
young person will not find employment. Furthermore, it also reduces the
productivity of the economy, as an older person will have more difficulty than
a young person to adapt to changes, to work longer hours if required, to learn
new things, etc. Therefore, the would become a weight for businesses.