According results, the first being an improvement of the

According to past studies, the simulation of runoff events with
high hydraulic risk has posed many challenges for policymakers, environmentalists
and engineers around the world. Using 1-D modelling to predict flood risk from
different return period events or multiple land use and climate change
scenarios are common(Horritt & Bates, 2002).

It is noticeable that the use of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) in
the creation of flood models have reached an important role of the topographic
and hydrological analysis of basin data, since it represents a series of
elevations in the basin at regularly spaced intervals. This removes the
assumption that the basin or area is a flat surface without contours(Heimhuber et al., 2015).

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In case study on flood risk and
flood prediction using GIS and the model of hydrodynamic presented the
possibility of using DEM controlled in a GIS and translated into MIKE21. In the
study, different scenarios were checked out, and results were translated into
the GIS environment for flood visualization and analysis during a 100-year
flood return period(Ntajal et al., 2017). However, Jagadish Prasad Patraa, Rakesh Kumara
and Pankaj Manib pointed out that there was no real way to calibrate the
simulations from the modelling output, as flood and stage data for the floods
were rarely recorded and compared between the MIKE21 and MIKE1 results, the
first being an improvement of the last one(Prasad, Kumar, & Mani, 2016).

In a research
conducted by Sarawut Jamrussri and Yuji Toda on the hydraulic models and GIS
for the study of the Mae Klong River in Thailand. Flow frequency analysis was
used in the creation of a flood risk map. The study also showed that the
simulation results were correctly presented in GIS and DTM format, using
contour and height data from the river point. Sarawut Jamrussri and Yuji Toda conclude
their study by suggesting that more studies be done in large basins, dividing
them into sub-basins and introducing the network link to integrate them to have
a general view of the basin. Runoff from floodplains, fluvial canals and
artificial structures are important factors in the study of the prediction of
runoff flow patterns, the researchers added. rainwater in upstream areas and
not stable(Jamrussri
& Toda, 2017).