Abstract: Fossil fuel, INTRODUCTION India has emerged as a

Abstract: The populace in the global scenario has drastically
increased in the past decades. Due to this situation the necessity of
transportation also escalated which simultaneously raised the pollution levels.
Nowadays the populace commonly prefers their individual vehicles rather than
public transport system. This made the automotive manufacturers to come up with
new technologies and to compensate the stringent norms introduced by several
countries. Internal Combustion engine has been serving the world more than a
century and plays a vital role in the means of transportation. Many researches
were made to enhance the efficiency of IC engines by the usage of alternative
fuels, alteration of the intake parameters, stroke variation, usage of
alternative materials etc., At present scenario of IC engine, the efficiency
ranges between 35 – 50 % based on the technology used. If more efficient IC
engines are used it would meet the demand of depleting fossil fuels. Such
engines may prevent the demise of fossil fuels. Thus our project deals with the
prospect to discuss the phenomenal changes and effects occurring on IC engine
when the working fluid is enriched oxygen.  

keywords: Oxygen-enriched combustion, Intake parameters, Stroke
variation, Working fluid, Fossil fuel,

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 INTRODUCTION

India has emerged as a fastest growing major economy
in the globe; this plays a vital role in the development of nation in several
sectors, one of the significant sectors is transportation. Being a second most
populated country in the world, it has created a big demand of transportation
which causes the increase in population of vehicles that is fulfilled by many
automotive industries around the world. Owing to this issue India faces a worse
traffic condition in every nook and corner of cities. Another major issue is
the adulteration in the ambient air due to the pollutants emitted from the
vehicles. So there is an urgency to save and protect the environment from
pollution for the betterment of the future generation. Many countries around
the world had introduced stringent norms that differ by names according to the
respective countries. Likely India is following Bharath Stage (BS), Europe is
following Euro norms. This revised emission norms forced the automotive
manufacturers to come up with vehicles that satisfy those norms. Also to reduce
the pollution and traffic level Delhi government introduced an odd-even system
in which the odd numbered vehicles have to be driven on a particular day and
even numbered vehicles on the other days. Also several researchers focused to
improve the efficiency of IC engine 5, some tried with alternate fuels, some
with renewable energy etc., Country like India cannot immediately implement the
future technologies like Electric Vehicles (EV) and Hydrogen Fuel Cell. So it
is necessary to enhance the betterment in IC engines to cope up with the norms.
This paper details the oxygen-enriched combustion on the performance parameters
and its impact on the emission of exhaust gases in the macroscopic level.

K.
Rajkumar and P. Govindarajan 1 examined
the combustion of oxygen enriched air and its performance in a single cylinder
water cooled diesel engine loaded with an eddy current dynamometer. In this experiment, oxygen-enriched
combustion technology was incorporated in a computerized modelled single cylinder diesel
engine using data acquisition system. In the mixing chamber, the ambient air was fed and the oxygen from the O2
cylinder was limited to 4 L/min which was measured using a gas flow analyzer.
After inscribing all the necessary parametrical values in the data acquisition
system, the performance page illustrates various performance parameters such as
BP, fuel consumption, load, speed and flue gas temperature. The combustion page
describes miscellaneous performance characteristics likely mechanical
efficiency, IP, FP and mean effective pressure. An increase of 15 % in SFC, 25
% in mean effective pressure and 5 to 20 % in ?mech was achieved
when the oxygen concentration of 4 L/ min was maintained. The BP was increased
to nearly 70 % when the O2 concentration was maintained between 1 to
4 L/min. The combustion efficiency was increased when the exhaust gas
temperature was raised to 30 ?.

Dinesha P et al. 2 incorporated enriched oxygen in a computerized
single cylinder water cooled DI diesel engine coupled to an eddy current
dynamometer. Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) was the biodiesel used in this
experimental setup. 20 % of cardanol, 10 % of methanol and 70 % of biofuel
blends were used to test the performance, combustion and emission
characteristics of oxygen enriched air supply in the concentration of 23 %
(ambient air) and extra concentration of O2 at 3, 5 and 10% at
injection pressure of 180 bar and injection timing of 27 ? bTDC. The results
were compared with the standard diesel fuel. The level of O2 was
adjusted by means of mass flow meter which was supplied from the O2
cylinder. AVL Digas 444 analyzer and AVL 437 C smoke meter were used to measure
the exhaust emissions. A higher HRR was observed when the O2 concentration
was 7 % with B20M10 fuel. With B20M10 fuel at full load condition with 7 % O2
enrichment a 28 % NOx emission, 36 % increase in CO, 1 % lower
smoke and 13.3 % lower HC was observed.

A. M.
Falahat et al. 3 investigated the engine performance with hydrogen-oxygen
mixture as a supplement combustor in single cylinder air cooled SI engine. In
this experiment, H2 was produced on-board through water electrolysis
where the H2O molecule was split into H2 and O2 gases
known as HHO gas or brown gas. A gas flow meter was used to measure the rate of
HHO gas flow in the engine. Kane automotive gas analyzer was used to measure
the exhaust emissions and the speed by digital tachometer. The engine was
experimented at variable speeds ranging from 1350 to 2250 rpm with
miscellaneous flow rates of 1, 1.5 and 2 LPM of HHO gas. Then the experimental
parameters were kept constant and a little quantity of HHO gas was inducted and
engine performance parameters were measured. Finally the volume of HHO gas was
increased until the fuel savings tend to be optimum. A peak percent of 23 % of
BTE was achieved after enrichment of H2. When the flow rate of HHO
gas increases, brake power and torque increases.

Mohamed
Brayek et al. 4 analyzed the performance and emission of a single cylinder
air cooled SI engine when a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen was added and
compared with gasoline fuel. Hydrogen and oxygen was generated by employing the
fuel cell. Flame arrestor and flame trap were the safety devices that prevent
flame from reaching the electrolyser. The experiment was executed under variable
load conditions. Several measuring equipments were employed to measure ambient
and flue gas temperature, output voltage and current, fuel consumption and
concentration of the exhaust gases. The engine was tested under steady state
condition and the loads of 0, 0.3, 0.75, 1.2 and 1.5 kW with the supplement of
5 l/min of H2/ O2 mixture to the fuel. BSFC decreased by
7.8 % when enrichment of H2/ O2 increases at more than
0.3 kW loads. The flue gas temperature was reduced when the enrichment of H2/
O2 increases.

 

 

 

Abbreviations and Acronyms:

 

BP

Brake
Power

BS

Bharath
Stage

BSFC

Brake
Specific Fuel Consumption

CNSL

Cashew Nut Shell Liquid

CO

Carbon
Monoxide

EV

Electric
Vehicle

FP

Friction
Power

HC

Hydrocarbon

HHO

Hydrogen-Oxygen
mixture

IP

Indicated
Power

LPM

Liter
Per Minute

NOx

Oxides
of Nitrogen

SFC

Specific
Fuel Consumption

SI

Spark
Ignition

 

Conclusion

·        
While
employing oxygen-enriched combustion, An increase of 15 % in SFC, 25 % in mean effective
pressure and 5 to 20 % in ?mech was achieved when the oxygen
concentration of 4 L/ min was maintained.

·        
While using B20M10 fuel blend with enriched oxygen,
with B20M10 7 % O2 concentration was to the standard diesel fuel and
suggested for better engine operation.

·        
When
HHO gas was used as a supplement in SI engine, When the H2 flow
rate was 2 LPM, SFC decreases by 16.9 %. CO and NOx lower when the
flow rate of HHO gas increases.

·        
When
H2/ O2 was employed as a supplement in SI engine, An
unblunt drop of HC was observed when the enrichment of H2/ O2
increases at all engine loads. 31. 8 % of CO was reduced when the enrichment of
H2/ O2 increases.

References:

1 K. Rajkumar, P. Govindarajan, Impact of oxygen
enriched combustion on the performance of a single cylinder diesel engine, Front.
Energy 2011, 5(4): 398–403

DOI 10.1007/s11708-011-0157-7

2 Dinesha P, Vighnesha Nayak and Mohanan P, Effect
of oxygen enrichment on the performance, combustion, and emission of single cylinder
stationary CI engine fueled with cardanol diesel blends, Journal of Mechanical
Science and Technology 28 (7) (2014) 2919~2924.

DOI 10.1007/s12206-014-0644-y

3 A. M. Falahat, M. A. Hamdan And J. A. Yamin, ENGINE
PERFORMANCE POWERED BY A MIXTURE OF HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN FUEL OBTAINED FROM
WATER ELECTROLYSIS, International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 15,
No. 1, pp. 97?101 (2014).

4 Mohamed Brayek, Mohamed Ali Jemni1, Gueorgui
Kantchev, Mohamed Salah Abid, Effect of Hydrogen–Oxygen Mixture Addition on
Exhaust Emissions and Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine, Arab J Sci Eng, DOI
10.1007/s13369-016-2228-x

5 Karthikayan Sundararajan, Krishnaraj Janathanan,
Vasanthakumar Pandian, Madhankumar Dhandapani, and Kalaiyarasan Kanagara,
“A Performance, Combustion and Emission Study on HCCI Engine: Trends and
Innovations,” SAE Technical Paper 2016-28-0013, 2016,
doi:10.4271/2016-28-0013.