BEV (Battery Electric
Vehicle): BEVs are vehicles that use an electric motor as the powertrain
system. The electricity needed to run the motor is
stored in a battery. The battery is
charged through electric charging points which may be located in a public or private charging
PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle): PHEVs have a hybrid
powertrain system which includes an ICE (Internal combustion Engine) and an
electric motor. The ICE uses conventional fuel (gasoline for instance) to
operate while the electric motor uses the electricity stored in the battery to
operate. The battery can be charged via
an electric charging point like BEVs. A PHEV then can run in ICE mode or electric motor mode.
FCV (Fuel-Cell Vehicle):
FCVs are electric vehicles that operate based on an electric motor. The electricity input to the motor is generated in a fuel cell that uses hydrogen
as input. FCVs are fueled by a hydrogen
refueling stations (HRSs) and have tanks on the vehicle to store hydrogen.
EVs have less air and noise pollution, emit less GHG
emissions and have lower user costs per km compared to ICEVs, and can also lead
to an increase in the share of renewable energy in a country/jurisdiction 9. EVs are also more efficient than ICEVs because of their electric
As a result,
EVs not only contribute to the reduction in GHG emissions from the transportation sector and can be used as a
promising solution to address climate change issues, they can also be used to
address the issue of local air pollution. Electrification of transportation
sector will also decrease the primary consumption because of the increase in
the well-to-wheel efficiency of an electric powertrain system compared to an
ICE system 6.
the transportation sector means there will be a lower need for oil products. The
electricity needed to fuel the alternative fuel vehicles may be generated from different resources. This means that electrifying the transportation
sector reduces the dependency on oil
products and covers the need for oil products with other resources. So as the
primary energy needed for transportation sector can be supplied from different energy sources, energy supply security
and flexibility will increase 6.
Although there is a worldwide
agreement on the need for decreasing the amount of CO2 emission
reduction, the development of low-emission technologies has several barriers
the most important of which is their higher cost compared to conventional
technologies. Additional to higher cost, EVs also face the problem of range
anxiety for customers.
this hurdle, countries/jurisdictions all
over the world have established programs to support the widespread deployment
of EVs and development of their charging/refueling infrastructure. But while we
have observed an increase in the adoption of EVs in recent years, there is
still a need for policies for promoting further deployment of EVs. These
policies should be presented in different
forms such as financial incentives, support for technological
progress and incentives for charging/refueling infrastructure 10.
Although EVs generally have lower variable cost than ICEVs,
this can’t cover the issue of higher upfront cost 9.
Allocating incentives for the purchase of
electric vehicles tries to address the higher cost challenge. Developing
sufficient charging and refueling infrastructure is also aimed at addressing
the anxiety range challenge. Other factors such
as lack of knowledge about new technologies may also contribute to slow
deployment of EVs. However, we are not
focusing on these social factors in this
work as they are found to be of a lower degree of importance compared to
technological issues 15.
It is generally accepted that the widespread
deployment of electric vehicles needs fiscal incentives at least in the early
stages of adoption. These fiscal incentives and regulations may be provided in different forms such as purchase
subsidy, emission regulation, and R
important point in the analysis of the
policies for BEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs is
that the effect of support policies for each of these technologies is not
limited to that technology and will also affect the deployment of others.
Harrison and Thiel 11 state
that maturity of FCVs may be prohibited if a strong policy for chargeable
electric vehicles is in place.
work, we are reviewing subsidies for both infrastructure and vehicle deployment
for countries that have incentives for BEVs and PHEVs as well as FCVs. The
incentives considered in this work are purchase subsidies for BEVs, PHEVs, and
FCVs. Regarding the charging/refueling infrastructure, we are reviewing how
local governments support and contribute to the development of the
charging/refueling infrastructure. A qualitative analysis is then presented
based on the review of the policies.
Review of support policies
There are a considerable number of countries which have
support policies for deployment of EVs and PHEVs,
but in this work, we are considering
countries that have incentives and support policy for both
EV/PHEVs and FCVs. The countries/jurisdictions considered in
this work are from three geographical areas: East Asia, Europe, and North
countries/jurisdictions investigated in this work are as follows:
East Asia: Japan, Republic
of Korea, China
Europe: Germany, France,
UK, Norway, Denmark, Sweden
North America: state of